Abu Zayd views the conflict between 'ulama
and intellectuals as one emanating from an inability to keep the authorities of political institutions and religious institutions apart.
11) For a convincing argument that this has been the case, see Muhammad Qasim Zaman, "Pluralism, Democracy, and the 'Ulama
,'" in Robert W.
49) Some of these texts are ambiguous enough to allow for interpretations that support the superiority of the Shah's authority over that of the 'ulama in affairs of the state.
Other authorities which the 'ulama confirmed on the Shah in Jihadiyeh included the right to increase taxes and confiscate any property necessary for the war effort, and to execute those who oppose the war or help the enemy, even if they are Muslims.
The 'ulama asked the Shah to "refer to the mujtahids' advice regarding the means and laws of the religious canon.
This notion is borne out by the choice of a Shi'i high 'ulama as one of the three members of the Leadership for Iraqi National Congress, which is obviously supported by the US administration, the two other Leadership members being a Kurdish nationalist and a Sunni ex-military officer.
The direct motivation for establishing al-Da'wa was, however, the serious decline of the roles of the 'ulama (religious intellectuals) and hawza (academic circle) in the process of secularization of the judicial, education and social welfare systems within the modern state system.
Even though the Qur'an and Hadith do not explicitly discuss abortion, the 'ulama
, or Islamic scholars, as well as the laity have traditionally rejected the kind of abortion which is at the heart of women's choice in the West and the United States.
In modern Egypt, and under the impact of both colonialism and modernization, the author argues correctly that the position of the 'ulama
went through a major transformation.
Yet even here the similarity breaks down in so far as Ben Badis and the 'Ulama movement did not use coercion to achieve their aim, although they did mount scathing verbal attacks against sufi orders.
Increasingly, Algerian scholars who attempt to interpret the present crisis in the history of the nationalist movement, argue that from its inception, the Front of National Liberation included among its members a number of 'Ulama sympathisers who were excluded from government after independence.
But, Ephrat asks, "Did their [the madrasas'] appearance change the process by which individuals were recognized as scholars, gaining prominence among the 'ulama