Note that in the Tsezic as well as in other Daghestanian languages typical verbs denoting perception and other psychological states such as SEE, HEAR, WANT/LIKE/LOVE, KNOW and UNDERSTAND mark the subject with the Lative or Dative and the object with the absolutive case (Comrie and van den Berg 2006; Ganenkov 2006).
As already mentioned, experiencer verbs usually require the experiencer to be marked by the Lative/Dative and the object by the Absolutive case, and FIND follows this pattern.
A number of examples of this can be found throughout the corpus; note especially the following passage: nali faban(i)=ne-s sidarn(i)=a kul=or=o=m "the mountain cursed the deer (literally: the mountain spoke the deer curses)," where the deer (nali) is the indirect object, but has been promoted to the absolutive case
for discourse reasons.
The word meaning 'fish' is in the absolutive case (unmarked in this language) when it is the "subject" of an intransitive verb (first example) or the "object" of a transitive verb (third example), and in the ergative case when it is the "subject" of a transitive verb (second example).
Although the ergative also meets the definition (obligatory non-patient complement of a transitive verb), it must be borne in mind that in ergative languages function II contrasts with the absolutive case (I = III), whereas in triadic languages with two other cases (I [not equal to] III).
In the Dual Theory, Koryak reduplication is handled via morphological doubling, the juxtaposition of a noun stem and its truncated counterpart to form a derived stem whose meaning is the same as that of its input daughters but which, in addition, encodes the absolutive case
Since Dumi is an ergative language, these features comprise +/-Erg(ative) for ergative and absolutive case
8) In antipassive clauses, the semantic subject appears in the absolutive case
typically used for grammatically intransitive subjects, and the semantic object appears in the modalis case typically used for obliques of various sorts.