The description of the productivity of these suffixes as regards the quotas of the generated new lexemes is to take into account the fact that most of the factitive nouns are same-word variants of action nouns
(either in the direct 'from action noun
to factitive noun' or in the reverse 'from factitive noun back to action noun
' diachronic or/and psycho-semantic sequence.
The larger one is given by the five action noun
This means that, instead of starting a sentence with something like "A determination was made," it becomes "The board" or "chief executive officer determined" - starting with a personal subject and converting an action noun
into an action verb.
The semantic change here is very subtle, almost imperceptible on purely extensional grounds, as is generally the case between a verb and its corresponding action noun
: the difference is normally characterized as one between an activity viewed as such in the case of the verb and the same activity viewed as an entity in the case of the action noun
These numbers stand for the action noun
(1), action noun
admitting its own factitive and/or resultative lexicalization(s) (2), agent noun (3), patient noun (4), deverbal adjective (5), present participle (6), passive modal adjective (7), and past participle (8): multiply 1275, multiplying 1380 (1), multiplication 1384 (2) multiplier 1420 (3), multitipliant 1430 (5), multiplying 1425 (6), multiplicable 1471 (7), multiplied 1463 (8).
The first case concerns the inability of some Slavic languages to express the directobject relation between an action noun
and its logical object (theme) by means of relational adjectives, which is all the more surprising since Slavic languages are renowned for their otherwise abundant use of relational adjectives.
They address currently debated issues in the study of nominalizations, such as aspect preservation in different types of nominalizations, the potential for pluralization and adjectival modification, argument licensing in relation to synthetic compounding, lexical representation of zero-derived action nouns
, and the argument licensing properties of nominals in relation to psych predicates.
A semantic analysis of grammatical class impairments: Semantic representations of object nouns, action nouns
and action verbs.
The agent nouns are masculine, whereas the action nouns
display the feminine gender.
Such an account is somewhat more sophisticated, and certainly more theoretically up-to-date, than the usual treatment in the standard grammars, which simply state that most -mo- derivatives are action nouns
, with some agent nouns in the collection.
A proportion of action nouns
are lexicalized into one-word factitive and/or resultative (further on to be referred to as factitive) nouns.
Thus the -age suffix illustrated in (1a) more regularly derives action/state nominals such as marriage; the -ery suffix in (1b) more regularly derives collectives (such as greenery) or action nouns
(such as butchery); the -er suffix in (1c) more regularly derives agent nouns such as killer; and the processes in (1d-f) more regularly derive action/state nouns such as preservation, insurance, demand.