Inhibins, activins and follistatin in reproduction.
Net increase in stimulatory input resulting from a decrease in inhibin B and an increase in activin A may contribute in part to the rise in follicular phase follicle-stimulating hormone of aging cycling women.
A recent report suggested that activins are also direct repressors of skeletal muscle mass; elevated expression of activins promoted muscle wasting and cachexia in a mice model (Chen et al.
Like other TGF-[beta] superfamily members, activins and MSTN signal via a heteromeric complex of type II and type I receptors.
Although the mechanisms regulating the activation of primordial follicles and growth of primary and secondary follicles are not completely understood, accumulating evidence indicates that these processes are locally regulated by various paracrine and autocrine factors, among which are activins, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9), bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) and Kit ligand (KL).
Activins are heterodimers (AYAAYB, activin AB) or two homodimers (AYAAYA, activin-A; AYBAYB, activin B) of the AY subunits of inhibin.
are members of the important transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family of "morphogens," i.
In the first part of this volume the basic concepts of transforming growth factor [Beta], or TGF[Beta], signaling in normal physiology and cancer pathobiology are described in 32 chapters, with topics that include TGF[Beta] availability, regulators of Smad activity by phosphorylation, activins
and inhibins in cancer progression, and uterine sensitization associated Gene-1.
are expressed in preimplantation mouse embryos and in ES and EC cells and are regulated on their differentiation.
Potential local regulatory functions of inhibins, activins
and follistatin in the ovary.
stated, "The acquisition of OBI positions DSL as the exclusive global provider of diagnostic tests for the measurement of Inhibins and Activins
Among the other topics are activins
and inhibins, agonists and antagonists of the TGF-BEta family ligands, regulation of the Smad pathway by signaling cross-talk, and BMP-based therapeutics and the BMP signaling pathways.