But the massacre at Beziers brings up yet another analytical problem in dealing with the crusade against the Albigensians
Megivern gives bloody examples of horrible violence by popes and in the Inquisition, giving the death penalty to thousands and thousands of Christians, including Jan Hus, Joan of Arc, Albigensians
, Waldensians, Franciscans, Knights Templars, and Anabaptists.
It is not uncommon to see them and their more radical cousins the Albigensians
described in modern, informal travel guides as idealistic reformers, even as precursors of the 1960s' Age of Aquarius, who fought an unbalanced war against the material excesses and overweening power of the church of the day, only to be attacked by the unappreciative church and self-aggrandizing feudal lords.
Commenting on the death of the King of Chastel Mortel, Helen Adolf (following Carman) cites the events of Shabbat ha-Gadol at York but maintains: much more were the Albigensians
in favor of suicide, and their enemies would tell such tales about them, even contrary to truth, in order to discredit them in the eyes of pious souls'.
A remarkable example of this procedure, which is also characteristic of his methods, is his treatment of the troubles of the Provencal Jews with the Dominican Inquisition during the struggles of the church with the Albigensians
Thomas confronted with the same forces in the form of the Albigensians
In addition to frayed morality, an equally prominent reason was contemporary antisacramental movements, especially the Cathari, known as the Albigensians
in southern France and as the Patarenes in Lombardy, who rejected the flesh and material creation as evil, concluding about sacraments that God does not act through evil instruments.
Dominic received the rosary from the Blessed Virgin in a vision while trying to convert the Albigensians
Grenke's description of Christians who hunted and killed witches as being motivated by fear that nonconformity might lead to the destruction of Christianity is undoubtedly true; but it is a conclusion out of context with consideration of medieval campaigns against Albigensians
, heretics of all sorts, Marranos, and others who were seen as a danger to Christianity.
Louis VIII of France razed Avignon to the ground in 1226 when it sided with the Albigensians
The misguided Albigensians
taught that matter was evil and rejected marriage altogether because it brought new material beings into the world.
Sermon 8, which was preached before a university audience when he incepted in theology, is notable for an aside, probably belonging to a period after the de Montfort crusade, in which he reckons that there are fewer Albigensians
around than there used to be.