The approach rejects the argument that maximization of collective welfare can be an

algebraic sum of individual welfare and replaces it with "an analysis of decision-making processes in terms of voting theory, game theory, agency relations, and in terms of the Coasian theory of the firm and of the transaction costs applied to the governments as complex firms supplying public goods.

Fuzzy

Algebraic Sum is applied to get the final weights of indicators.

With the intention of providing systemic techniques that will help graduate and upper-level undergraduate students, researchers and non-specialists evaluate almost any finite

algebraic sum, this offers essential tools ranging from classic ideas of Euler to computer algorithms by Gosper, Wilf and Zeilberger.

The insertion loss simply is the

algebraic sum of the insertion losses of the individual components.

The solution in that case was a structure characterised by the three Ps: seeing progress as the

algebraic sum of performance (which could be measured) and the change in potential (which could only be assessed).