86) This same complexity of different groups with contrasting moral statuses within a single people of God finds expression in the interpretation of this same verse in Midrash Rabbah on the Song of Songs, a work redacted in the land of Israel about the mid-sixth century and attributing ideas to the amoraim
active there in the third and fourth centuries.
The observation made by Kutscher (1976: 58) concerning the fact that the construction kd + participle does not exist in Galilean Aramaic, but that it is used in the BT in the non-standard tractates and the speech of Aramaic Amoraim
and thus reflects a supra-dialectal language is not correct.
Similarly, we find that even though the Amoraim
did not have the right to disagree with Tannaim in halakhic matters, still we find that they offered alternative explanations to verses (Or ha-Hayyim, Gen.
Basola goes out of his way to stand at the reputed graves of Yocheved, Tzipporah, Elisheva, Yishal, the father of King David, Zevulun, and others, along with those Tannaim and Amoraim
such as Hillel, Shammai, Rabbis Elazar ben Azariah, Akiva, Tarfon, Shimon ben Gamaliel, Huna, and Chiyya.
This nickname was cherished by the Amoraim
and is ubiquitous in their sayings.
Though these periods correspond with (approximate) chronological periods (the period of the tannaim lasted from the beginning of the common era to about 200; that of the amoraim
from about 200-600, and that of the rishonim from about 1000-1400), the demarcations denote as much hermeneutic function as historical periodization.
The authorities of the Mishna are called by the term Tanna, meaning teacher by the authorities of the Gemara, themselves known as Amoraim
, or an Amora.
The Amoraic period, or the age of the Amoraim
, extended from approximately 220 C.
and that is the watershed between the Tannaic and the Amoraic periods, so named after the Tannaim (sages whose teachings appear in the Mishnah) and the Amoraim
(sages whose teachings appear in the Talmud but not in the Mishnah).
Neither the prophets nor the Tannaim nor the Amoraim
circumscribed matters of faith by saying that he who believes thus and thus or does not believe it is to be excluded from the community of Israel .