Starch is synthesized and accumulated in amyloplasts
, a polymer formed by the association of two polysaccharides: amylose (approximately 25% of the total content) and amylopectin (the remaining 75%), the main component of starch granules (Zeeman, Kossmann, & Smith, 2010).
a high-capacity calcium-binding protein in amyloplasts
They have a dense cytoplasm with irregular shape filled with numerous small vesicles, oil body, abundant amyloplasts
and a prominent centrally placed nucleus (Fig.
Transmission electron microscopy showed that cells of the yellow friable callus had dense cytoplasm, nuclei with prominent nucleoli, a large number of amyloplasts
, and absence of vacuoles.
A complete ferredoxin/thioredoxin system regulates fundamental processes in amyloplasts
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
ABA has been detected in every major organ of plant from the root cap to the apical bud and synthesized in almost all cells that contain chloroplast and amyloplasts
Starch has been found to serve as the predominant energy reserve in other well-studied secretory structures (Fahn 1979, Paiva & Machado 2008), and the juxtaposition of mitochondria and amyloplasts
indicate the energy need for starch hydrolysis, as discussed by Paiva & Machado (2008).
If polarized light microscopy is included, it can be used as a tool to identify plant material on the basis of the Maltese cross evident in amyloplasts
when viewed with crossed polars and the birefringence exhibited by cellulosic fibers (for complete instructions for a lab on polarized light microscopy, see McMahon, 2004).
However, suppressors grown on 1% sucrose medium show the presence of some amyloplasts
Proteomic characterization of wheat amyloplasts
using identification of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry.
Physiological stress expressed by salinity during this period reduces the storage capacity of cereal kernels by decreasing the number of endosperm cells and/or the number of amyloplasts
initiated (Jones et al.