18) Low androgen levels, such as in those who are androgen deficient or using androgen antagonists
, can result in reduced quality and quantity of meibomian lipids which is seen clinically as increased tear film instability and reduced tear break-up time (TBUT).
These studies led to the identification of several estrogen receptor (ER) agonists as being androgen antagonists.
Low-level exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds can induce functional, developmental, behavioral, and transgenerational disturbances, as shown after low-level exposure to the fungicide vin-clozolin, which acts as an androgen antagonist in rats and mice (Anway et al.
CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the OECD Hershberger bioassay protocol is reproducible and transferable across laboratories with androgen agonists, weak androgen antagonists, and a 5[alpha]-reductase inhibitor.
Four androgen antagonists and a 5[alpha]-reductase inhibitor were used as test substances.
Based on this phase 1 validation study, the protocols have been refined, and the next phase of the OECD validation program will test the protocol with selected doses of weak androgen agonists, androgen antagonists
, a 5[alpha]-reductase inhibitor, and chemicals having no androgenic activity.
All test systems showed that bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide act as potent androgen antagonists
(Ma et al.
This modified system was successfully used by several investigators for assaying androgen antagonists
(Peers et al.
Calculated properties of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in relation to fenitrothion and known androgen antagonists