Opium Wars

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Opium Wars

pl n
(Historical Terms) two wars (1839–42; 1856–60) between China and Britain resulting from the Chinese refusal to allow the importation of opium from India. China ceded Hong Kong after the British victory in 1842. The British and French victory in the second war established free trade in Chinese ports and the legalization of the opium trade
References in periodicals archive ?
The flexibility of the system further manifested itself after the Anglo-Chinese wars in the nineteenth century, an Era of Negotiation that saw the transition from Asian tribute order to Western European treaty order--and one that was constructed upon an ideal of hierarchy extending outward from a center to periphery, as opposed to upon "the concept of national sovereignty--sovereign, territorially defined nation-states" (91).
Scholars contend that the defeat of China in the Anglo-Chinese wars in 1840s and 1860s symbolizes the collapse of the centuries-old tribute system and saw the establishment of Western treaty system in Asia.

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