not be long; they have been commonly of fools, satyrs, baboons, wild-men, antics, beasts, sprites, witches, Ethiops, pigmies, turquets, nymphs, rustics, Cupids, statuas moving, and the like.
Innovative ideas arise here, such as teaching Shoemaker's Holiday and Knight of the Burning Pestle as festivity, using Brueghel's Children's Games as a window into the atmosphere of Bartholomew Fair, and arranging a class around the principle of the masque followed by the anti-masque
, in which a teacher may "draw attention to [her] intervention as a part of a prescribed, formal performance" (183).
It also has been proved that Jonson's masques, especially their anti-masque parts, carry the characteristics of popular entertainments.
See Francis Bacon's "Of Masques and Triumphs" (1612): "Let anti-masques not be long; they have been commonly of fools, satyrs, baboons, wild men, antics, beasts, spirites, witches, AEthiopes, pigmies, turquets, nymphs, rustics, Cupids, statuas moving, and the like" (31) (my italics).
Or an anti-masque
, parodying the events of the main drama that follows?
A century later, and certainly by the time Inigo Jones worked on his sketchbook of anti-masque figures, images for the role of tinker included a woman (probably a transvestite) wearing a bellows on her head with the handle sticking up straight, as in fig.
Though "mad things" turn up earlier, the list of designs for anti-masque figures in Jonson's Masque of Queens (1613), for instance, specifically allude to commedia.
Hugh Craig addresses another issue central to masque criticism, the relation of masque and anti-masque
As a perfect contrast to Orgel, Hugh Craig writes well on the anti-masque
(in the latter, disorderly and lumpish characters were dispelled from the stage as if by magic when the Olympian gods and goddesses arrived and the masque proper began).
This group stands above and controls the multiple, heterogeneous voices of the figures of the anti-masque
is once again used to represent "the monstrous shapes" of the vices that are being chased out of the unsullied heaven of the idealized English court.
Throughout, I use "masque" as an umbrella term that includes anti-masques
, not to make any distinction.