not be long; they have been commonly of fools, satyrs, baboons, wild-men, antics, beasts, sprites, witches, Ethiops, pigmies, turquets, nymphs, rustics, Cupids, statuas moving, and the like.
In consequence, this becomes a profound study of reception, which challenges many orthodox assumptions that tend by comparison to pursue (on Knowles's showing) rather simplistic oppositions and binaries, where authoritarian pronouncements are seen as suppressing dissent and radical questioning, as the masque-proper radiantly eclipses the darker elements of the anti-masque
Innovative ideas arise here, such as teaching Shoemaker's Holiday and Knight of the Burning Pestle as festivity, using Brueghel's Children's Games as a window into the atmosphere of Bartholomew Fair, and arranging a class around the principle of the masque followed by the anti-masque
, in which a teacher may "draw attention to [her] intervention as a part of a prescribed, formal performance" (183).
It also has been proved that Jonson's masques, especially their anti-masque
parts, carry the characteristics of popular entertainments.
In the opening flourish, following the prologue, for example, the stage direction indicates, "Then came in ye Anti-masque
being/six moores (mr moore himselfe being/one) having six blacke buckram/coats laced with yellow straw/each of them bearing a javlin in/his hand" (415).
Or an anti-masque
, parodying the events of the main drama that follows?
A century later, and certainly by the time Inigo Jones worked on his sketchbook of anti-masque
figures, images for the role of tinker included a woman (probably a transvestite) wearing a bellows on her head with the handle sticking up straight, as in fig.
Hugh Craig addresses another issue central to masque criticism, the relation of masque and anti-masque
As a perfect contrast to Orgel, Hugh Craig writes well on the anti-masque
(in the latter, disorderly and lumpish characters were dispelled from the stage as if by magic when the Olympian gods and goddesses arrived and the masque proper began).
After entreaty by Eunomia `the torchbearers descended and performed another anti-masque
, dancing with torches lighted at both ends', thus embodying the idea of James as heaven's true light.
Mercury presents an anti-masque
of oddly dancing cupids.
Within this antimasque, the separate dances (none of which have any of the structural features of anti-masque
tunes) are separated by short pieces (all derived from keyboard or lute sources) with titles like 'The Harp voluntary' or 'A harp improvisation'.