The gluons keep the quarks together - linking positive quarks to negative antiquarks
- using flux tubes, which can be thought of as flexible strands of energy.
It is known that all quarks, antiquarks
, and mesons can be imbedded in the ad-joint representation of [G.
At some point an unknown reaction called baryogenesis violated the conservation of baryon number, leading to a very small excess of quarks and leptons over antiquarks
and antileptons--of the order of one part in 30 million.
Held together by particles called gluons, quarks and their antimatter counterparts, antiquarks
, cluster in threes to form baryons (including protons and neutrons) and in pairs to produce mesons (including pions and kaons).
From what we know, if you tried to put a set of quarks or antiquarks
together you couldn't build these particles," he added.
If it is created, an antiproton consisting of three antiquarks
of the same flavor and color must also be created.
It seems that a random fluctuation, a broken symmetry, led to matter's having the slightest edge - a billion and one quarks for every billion antiquarks
are the same as regular quarks, except that they have an opposite electric charge.
Such excitons according to Hara could be identified with quarks and antiquarks
Thus, the actual W[+ or -] particles must be composite particles and it looks plausible to regard them as a combination of mesons of the top quark and either of the d, s, b antiquarks
or vice versa.
In the past 2 years, evidence has quickly mounted for the existence of pentaquarks, never-before-seen subatomic particles theoretically composed of five quarks or antiquarks
, which are fundamental constituents of matter.
And, earlier this year, physicists at the DZero collaboration - one of the two experiments conducted at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider before it was shut down in 2011 - announced the discovery of X(5568), believed to contain four distinct flavors of quarks and antiquarks
- bottom, strange, up and down.