The most common components found in the Piper species studied are camphor, apiole
, myristicin, safrole, sarisan, dillapiole, linalool, nerolidol, [alpha] and [beta]-pinene, [alpha]-humulene, [beta]-caryophyllene, as well as propenyphenols.
Other compounds that reported to exhibit antifungal properties such as Gingerglycolipid B  and Apiole  were also identified from the elute fraction.
Apart from the bioactive constituents discussed above, two compounds; Apiole and Gingerglycolipid B were identified from other classes of metabolites which might responsible for antifungal effect.
and camphor which were the key components in the previous studies were not found in the present investigation.
For example, Drosophila bioassays of parsnips unexpectedly revealed a new botanical insecticidal and synergistic natural product identified as myristicin (Lichtenstein and Casida 1963) that is related to dill apiole
and parsley apiole
, which were later recognized as acting the same way (de Almeida et al.
Majority of the compounds are less than 1-2% of the total composition except the following compounds isopulegyl acetate, valenche, viridiflorene, [alpha]-muurolene, 2-hexyne, 6-methyl-[alpha]-ionone, [gamma]-elemene, (E)-2-methyl-4-undecene, ledol, cis-3-hexenyl benzoate, 2-methyl-1-octadecene, apiole
, oplopamone and [gamma]-eudesmol.
The main compounds of parsley root oil were apiole
Davis (1978) reported the composition containing an ovicide podophylotoxin in the form of savin or savin oil, stilbestrol and apiole
made into tablets and when taken orally, it controls extrauterine pregnancy.