For example, Drosophila bioassays of parsnips unexpectedly revealed a new botanical insecticidal and synergistic natural product identified as myristicin (Lichtenstein and Casida 1963) that is related to dill apiole
and parsley apiole
, which were later recognized as acting the same way (de Almeida et al.
Majority of the compounds are less than 1-2% of the total composition except the following compounds isopulegyl acetate, valenche, viridiflorene, [alpha]-muurolene, 2-hexyne, 6-methyl-[alpha]-ionone, [gamma]-elemene, (E)-2-methyl-4-undecene, ledol, cis-3-hexenyl benzoate, 2-methyl-1-octadecene, apiole
, oplopamone and [gamma]-eudesmol.