enzyme(redirected from Apoenzymes)
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Related to Apoenzymes: Holoenzymes
Any of numerous compounds that are produced by living organisms and function as biochemical catalysts. Some enzymes are simple proteins, and others consist of a protein linked to one or more nonprotein groups.
[German Enzym, from Medieval Greek enzūmos, leavened : Greek en-, in; see en-2 + Greek zūmē, leaven, yeast.]
en′zy·mat′ic (-zə-măt′ĭk), en·zy′mic (-zī′mĭk, -zĭm′ĭk) adj.
en′zy·mat′i·cal·ly, en·zy′mi·cal·ly adv.
(Biochemistry) any of a group of complex proteins or conjugated proteins that are produced by living cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
[C19: from Medieval Greek enzumos leavened, from Greek en-2 + zumē leaven]
enzymatic, enzymic adj
any of various proteins, as pepsin and amylase, originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by catalytic action, as in digestion. Compare -ase.
[1880–85; < Medieval Greek énzymos leavened]
Any of the proteins produced in living cells that act as catalysts in the metabolic processes of an organism. For example, enzymes break down the large molecules found in food into smaller molecules so they can be digested.
Did You Know? No matter how hard you find chemistry in school, you're still quite good at it: every day your body performs complex biochemistry. Many of the chemical reactions that take place inside you depend on the proteins known as enzymes. These large, globular proteins catalyze, or speed up, the reactions sometimes by as much as a million times. Enzymes are structured so that they bond to a second, specific molecule, called a substrate. When the enzyme and its substrate come together, at a place on the enzyme called the active site, the substrate is modified, for example by combining two different substrate molecules into a single molecule. The enzyme remains unchanged, breaks away, and is free to perform its chemical magic on a fresh substrate molecule. People have found uses for enzymes outside our bodies as well. For example, detergents may include enzymes that break down organic stains on clothing, and enzymes have long been used in making beer, wine, and cheese.
A biological catalyst.
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|Noun||1.||enzyme - any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions|
active site - the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
ADA, adenosine deaminase - an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia; "ADA deficiency can lead to one form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease"; "the gene encoding ADA was one of the earlier human genes to be isolated and cloned for study"
catalyst, accelerator - (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
protein - any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes; "a diet high in protein"
amylase - any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants; help convert starch to sugar
cholinesterase - an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (into choline and acetic acid)
coagulase - an enzyme that induces coagulation
collagenase - any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin
complement - one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response
catalase - enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative catalyst; decomposes hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water
Cox, cyclooxygenase - either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
decarboxylase - any of the enzymes that hydrolize the carboxyl group
de-iodinase - an enzyme that removes the iodine radical
disaccharidase - an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of disaccharides into monosaccharides
elastase - a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin
enterokinase - enzyme in the intestinal juice that converts inactive trypsinogen into active trypsin
histaminase - enzyme that acts as a catalyst in converting histidine to histamine
hyaluronidase, Hyazyme, spreading factor - an enzyme (trade name Hyazyme) that splits hyaluronic acid and so lowers its viscosity and increases the permeability of connective tissue and the absorption of fluids
isomerase - an enzyme that catalyzes its substrate to an isomeric form
kinase - an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme
lipase - an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
lysozyme, muramidase - an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
MAO, monoamine oxidase - an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine and serotonin)
nitrogenase - an enzyme of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms that catalyzes the conversion of nitrogen to ammonia
nuclease - general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units
oxidase - any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation
oxidoreductase - an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation-reduction
papain - a proteolytic enzyme obtained from the unripe papaya; used as a meat tenderizer
beta-lactamase, penicillinase - enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic
pepsin - an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
pepsinogen - precursor of pepsin; stored in the stomach walls and converted to pepsin by hydrochloric acid in the stomach
phosphatase - any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
polymerase - an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
peptidase, protease, proteinase, proteolytic enzyme - any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
reductase - an enzyme that catalyses the biochemical reduction of some specified substance
secretase - a set of enzymes believed to snip pieces off a longer protein producing fragments of amyloid protein that bunch up and create amyloid protein plaques in brain tissue (the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's)
streptodornase - an enzyme produced by some hemolytic strains of streptococcus that dissolves fibrinous secretions from infections; used medicinally (often in combination with streptokinase)
streptokinase - an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin; used medicinally in some cases of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism
enzyme[ˈenzaɪm] N → enzima f
enzyme[ˈɛnzaɪm] n → enzima m
n. enzima, proteína que actúa como catalítico en reacciones químicas vitales;
mucomembranous ___ → ___ mucomenbranosa;
thrombolitic ___ → ___ trombolitica;
___ activator → activador de la ___;
___ inhibitor → inhibidor enzimático;
___ therapy → terapia de ___ -s.