The most interesting observation they found using the model was dynamic auto-inoculation
Auto-inoculation was defined as the presence of a particular HPV type at an anatomic site in 1 partner and its absence in all sites of the other partner at a given visit, and the presence of this HPV type in a different anatomic site in the affected partner at the subsequent visit.
A total of 78 transmission events were observed in 16 couples, including 14 male-to-female, 39 female-to-male, 21 male auto-inoculation, and 4 female self-inoculation (online Appendix Table, available from www.
In men, the rate of transmission by auto-inoculation was comparable to that of transmission from women.
Auto-inoculation involving the hands may result from casual contact or masturbation.
Tularemia -- clinical manifestations Disease Frequency Mode of acquisition Ulceroglandular 80% Arthropod inoculation or direct inoculation Glandular 15% across the dermis Oculoglandular 1% Inoculation of tularemia in the eye (infectious fluids, auto-inoculation
or dander) Oropharyngeal <5% Ingestion of raw/undercooked meat or Typhoidal Rare contaminated water Pneumonic Rare Inhalation or hematogenous spread following local (glandular or typhoidal) infection Table 2.
The VV is thought to develop in many instances as a result of auto-inoculation from cutaneous sites, particularly the skin of the hands.
Auto-inoculation from other cutaneous or anogenital sites is also possible, as has been shown in immune competent individuals.
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