McKnight argues that "Horn's return to Suddene and his avengement
of his father's death in the existing form of the story is quite secondary in interest to that of the second element, the reunion of the two lovers" (222).
In his prayer for Havelok when Grim has taken him to be drowned (on Godard's orders), the narrator invokes a link between the agency of Christ as miracle worker and an implored avengement
Misdemeanors, although different from crimes, are considered penal in the broader sense because they represent the retributive avengement
of unlawful behavior through reprobation by the state.