After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War
Even that one exception - the signing of Magna Carta in June 1215 - turned out to be the mere prelude to the First Barons' War
, when both sides settled down to find out exactly what the new agreement meant in practice.
The historian is also looking at how the battle for the rights enshrined the Magna Carta, the Barons' War
and Scottish War of Independence affected the nation, and discovers the public were making their own changes as trade and industry began to develop in Bristol, Wales and the Black Countr y.
After this discussion of the Barons' War
of the 1260s, the chapters proceed both chronologically and thematically, involving consideration of literary responses to Edward I's Scottish campaigns, the failures of Edward II, and the early years of Edward III.
In chapter 4, the focus shifts to the reigns of Louis IX and Henry III, contrasting the fortunes of the two kings with another nod to Charles Dickens: it was the "best of times" for Louis, secure on his throne and instigating reforms, but the "worst of times" for Henry, faced with the Barons' War
The specific invitation to cross the Alps by the duke of Milan, Lodovico Sforza, was only the last in a lengthy list of such appeals: the Venetian republic during the Ferrara war (1484); Pope Innocent VIII during the Barons' War
(1486) and again in 1489.