When looking specifically at the effects of social-constructs and the age in which a child begins formal education, there does not appear to be any differences between normal or later entry (Lincove & Painter, 2006; Loeb, Bridges, Bassock
, Fuller, & Rumberger, 2005; Sarosky, 2009).
Germane activities may include self-explanations (Chi, Bassock
, Lewis, Reimann & Glaser 1989), mental imagery (Cooper, Tindall-Ford, Chandler & Sweller, 2001) and study of rich worked examples.
providing and receiving explanations) may help students clarify misunderstanding and enhance mutual comprehension (Chi & Bassock
, 1989), therefore can help learners fill in gaps in their understanding.