The lipophilic and persistent nature of these environmentally stable compounds and their ability to biomagnify
through the food chain (Barber et al.
over time, biomagnify
, causing widespread, long-term, and severe damage
This variation may be attributed on one hand, to their habitats and on the other hand to their inherent abilities to biomagnify
the heavy metals.
Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify
Large number of experiments proved that PBDEs including BDE-209 persist in the environment for long time (de Wit 2002), and bioaccumulate and biomagnify
as they move through the food chain (Law et al.
Although it can persist in sediments and accumulate in sediment-dwelling organisms, it does not biomagnify
through the food chain.
Therefore, copper does not bioaccumulate or biomagnify
in aquatic or terrestrial food chains.
But even after grappling with the concept of potentially harmful natural products, I was still captivated by the idea that some natural products could biomagnify
Any form of Hg can be converted to methylmercury by natural means and then bioaccumulate and biomagnify
as it progresses through aquatic food webs.
PCBs are particularly problematic because they bioaccumulate and biomagnify
in aquatic food chains and hence attain peak concentrations in lipid-rich predatory organisms occupying upper trophic levels.
Although the effects of PBDEs and PBBs (polybrominated biphenyls--another related flame retardant) in humans are largely unknown, their similarity to PCBs, a known toxin, and their capacity to bioaccumulate in fatty tissue and then biomagnify
up the food chain, are a cause for concern for scientists and regulators.
These compounds tend to bioaccumulate  and biomagnify
 in food webs and their toxicology is a critical environmental [6, 7] and human health issue [8-10].