The establishments of unqualified bonesetters
or jirrahs were: Shifa Khana Jirai, Muhammad Shafi Jirah, Abdul Razzaq Jirrah Centre, M Shahbaz Dawakhana and Jirah, Asghar Ali Pehlwan, Shah-i-Jahan Fiaz Ghousia Jirah, Ali Hajvari Jirah, Muhammad Rafique Pehlwan and Bismillah Hadi Jor.
Once shunned as witches, hypnotists, bonesetters
, magnetists and herbalists are surfing on the swelling organic wave, experts say, and have gained such acceptance that many Swiss hospitals have even begun referring patients to them.
Their topics include the indigenous as a site of decolonizing knowledge for conventional development and the link with education as evinced in Africa, indigenous research and decolonizing methodologies, Western medical education and indigenous knowledges, and traditional bonesetters
and health choices in northern Ghana.
Hypothesizing the existence of "magnetic ether" that flows through the solar system into the human nervous apparatus, mesmerists--like chiropractors, spiritualists, bonesetters
, mind cure healers, and osteopaths--use hand gestures or "passes" to remove "obstructions" in the flow of "spirit" or "vital fluid" and restore "harmony" between the human body and the cosmos.
among them singers, seers, witchwives, washer women, sugar beer brewers, conjurers, native bearers, prayer makers, soothsayers, sorceresses, dyers, diviners, hired mourners, spinners, shepherdesses, babysitters, millers, maids, bookbinders, spellbinders, cornharvesters, great-grandmothers, sharecroppers, necromancers, exorcists, coffee pickers, potters, crazy women, midwives, planters, woodlanders, bonesetters
, troublemakers, spiritualists, mothers-in-law, peddlers, gravediggers, fireworks makers, drinkers, hags, beggars, bakers, basket weavers, shamanesses, liars, computers, comagres, sculptresses, muses, and even men.