The Sicilian Guiscards' treatment of Pope Gregory VII and the French king Philip IV's brutalizing of Pope Boniface VIII
come to mind.
In a later dispute between Pope Boniface VIII
and King Philip IV of France over the king's imposition of taxes on the clergy, Boniface wrote his famous decree, Unam sanctam, claiming papal supremacy in the temporal sphere.
Celestine's successor, Boniface VIII
, feared that having another properly elected pope at large, even though that pope had resigned, could prove a threat.
was elected days later, and had his predecessor imprisoned.
The last pope to resign -- Celestine V in 1294 -- was locked up and perhaps killed off by his successor Boniface VIII
and there is no record of the two ever meeting post-resignation.
Avant BenoEt XVI, le dernier pape a avoir demissionne de son plein gre fut Celestin V en 1294, mais son successeur, Boniface VIII
, l'avait place sous surveillance puis enferme.
He was a monk and resigned within four months to return to his monastery, but was imprisoned by his successor, Pope Boniface VIII
, to prevent his restoration.
He went on to live as a hermit, before being taken prisoner by his successor, Boniface VIII
An outspoken opponent of austere religious orders and an openly corrupt man, the actions of the simoniacal Boniface VIII
inflamed the verbal fury of Jacopone da Todi, a Franciscan friar associated with the Spirituales.
Pope Boniface VIII
, for example, believed both swords should be in the hands of the church, that a medieval king should have no power other than that granted to him by the pope.
Next, Gaposchkin examines closely the canonization process in the early stages of the extended conflict between Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII
According to the author, Dante might also have heard some forms of composed polyphony, like conductus and motets, perhaps also during his stay at the papal court of Boniface VIII