Because the King of France (Philip IV) was taxing the Church to help finance his wars, Boniface VIII
decided to declare that kings were subordinate to the power of the Church.
The concept died out in Judaism with the dispersal of Jews around the world but was relaunched in a Catholic format by Pope Boniface VIII
in 1300 with pilgrimages to Rome at its heart.
The Sicilian Guiscards' treatment of Pope Gregory VII and the French king Philip IV's brutalizing of Pope Boniface VIII
come to mind.
Jennifer Petrie, in a recent Lectura Dantis, gives the often quoted reasons for Guido's punishment the account by the fourteenth-century chronicler Riccobaldo da Ferrara, according to whom Pope Boniface VIII
asked Guido for help to sack the city of Palestrina, the stronghold of the Colonna, Boniface's enemy.
Chapman s conclusion argues for Bernards subtlety as opposed to Gelasiuss distinction, and gives an overview of how ecclesiastical independence and the debate surrounding power progressed from Innocent III to Boniface VIII
In a later dispute between Pope Boniface VIII
and King Philip IV of France over the king's imposition of taxes on the clergy, Boniface wrote his famous decree, Unam sanctam, claiming papal supremacy in the temporal sphere.
Celestine's successor, Boniface VIII
, feared that having another properly elected pope at large, even though that pope had resigned, could prove a threat.
The last pope to resign -- Celestine V in 1294 -- was locked up and perhaps killed off by his successor Boniface VIII
and there is no record of the two ever meeting post-resignation.
Avant BenoEt XVI, le dernier pape a avoir demissionne de son plein gre fut Celestin V en 1294, mais son successeur, Boniface VIII
, l'avait place sous surveillance puis enferme.
He resigned five months later, giving way to Boniface VIII
, who had him imprisoned, fearful that people loyal to the former pope would provoke a schism.
He was a monk and resigned within four months to return to his monastery, but was imprisoned by his successor, Pope Boniface VIII
, to prevent his restoration.
He went on to live as a hermit, before being taken prisoner by his successor, Boniface VIII