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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
Malay language is a language that has many borrowed words, Allah also is a borrowed word," Andrew argued.
It also allows the retrieval of idioms (see fare fiasco), adaptations, translations or words borrowed from other languages--mostly Ancient Greek, Latin, and, starting from the second half of the eighteenth century, French (for example, see the entry for the word opera, without any other specification; probably, as LesMu points out, this word began as Italian jargon which, after circulating outside, later came back to Italy as a borrowed word from French).
In order to determine the laws of adaption, she investigates whether a borrowed word preserves the shape in had in the source language, or changes to match the phonetic rules of Tuvan.
It seems that where a borrowed word has three or more vowels in a row, some are deleted so that at most two remain.
Coverage includes an overview of Japan's importation of English and the modern generation of gairago; the "paradox of cognates" and the effect of loanwords on the learning of English; common loanwords in Japanese that are based on high-frequency academic English and an assessment of the quality of these cognates; barriers to Japanese learners of English in utilizing their first-language resource, particularly their ability to extend borrowed word knowledge within English word families; and some general principles and specific suggestions about how to make use of gairago in teaching.
1 uses linguistic evidence to determine the geographic region in which Hungarian borrowed words from WOT, which he determines to be the Kuban-Don region.
At the Nature is Speaking launch event, he not only appealed for people's actions to protect trees and forests, but also borrowed words from the great Russian playwright, Anton Chekhov, to express his expectation:
When the connection between native speakers and Chinese Muslim borrowers were interrupted, the local dialect of the borrowed words gradually became popular and standard.
In fact so much of his letter is studded with borrowed words (eg.
Urdu is the language of the Indian subcontinent's Muslim north, and it has borrowed words from Arabic, Farsi and Turkish.
James Dolan borrowed words of welcome from the Latin Tridentine Mass (Introibo ad altare dei) for a commendation based on factors like a boy's "punctuality, fitness, decorum on the altar and devotion"--along with 250 hours of altar service.
But in Borrowed Words, author Philip Durkin explores a list of languages that have lent words to English.