Islam began much earlier in 610 AD with its chief enemy the Byzantian
Phrygians, Lydians, and Persians lived in the area including Alexander the Great's Helenistic period and Byzantian
Over the millennia, Hittite, Urartu, Roman, Byzantian
, Seljuk and Ottoman craftsmen and fine artists have developed and added to the craft.
The sirens' song is deceptive and sweet indeed, but with it goes the dazzle of "bronze from anear, by gold from afar" (330), a Byzantian
illusive metallic shimmer, Egyptian splendor, sun on oceangreen shadow, that fills the bar and that reflects (echoes) in the mirrors and the glasses that line the walls:
But when they had tasted the democracy of the Byzantians
, they fell to truphe, and from having been the most self-controlled and moderate as regards their daily life, they became drinkers (philopotai) and spenders (poluteleis).
Some time after the post-crystal Palace debates on design and style, in 1859, Ruskin pointedly connected ornament as a seme with cruelty and the Indian Mutiny: "All ornamentation of th[e] lower kind is pre-eminently the gift of cruel persons, of Indians, Saracens, Byzantians