and Rome's decent into civil war and Caesarism
about a century later.
The civil unrest associated with the Gracchi brothers is usually regarded as the beginning of Rome's long spiral into civil war and Caesarism
But with the permanent rise of Caesarism
, Rome lost not only her liberty but also her peace and security.
The descent into Caesarism
was less than two decades away.
Against the "emerging Caesarism
that binds republics with brittle iron," his was a lonely voice crying out against "the age of decline and abnormal violence," when men are "frightened and herded increasingly into lumps and masses.
Roeder in asserting that these constitutional arrangements "can all be the building blocks for autocracy,"(23) or as far as Stephen Holmes in describing the new system as "plebiscitary caesarism
,"(24) it is worth noting that a number of Yeltsin opponents decided not to actively oppose the ratification of the draft constitution in December 1993 in part because the prospect of defeating Yeltsin in a future presidential election and having one of their own assume this powerful office was a rather enticing notion?
Accordingly, Cicero's Rome was on the cusp of Caesarism
, and we now live in the age of the Imperial Presidency.
Arnold makes a similar case for Julius Caesar and argues that Shakespeare favorably depicts "the people's unmediated participation in the empowerment of Caesar" (146); "the tribunes fear Caesarism
because it makes the people themselves the vessels of their own power: Caesarism
is an antirepresentational carnival of presentism" (147).
For Rome, like America (and unlike Great Britain), was not a monarchy but a republic--a label the Romans clung to for centuries after the rise of Caesarism
Still, it was the lingering trauma of hard times, coupled with disgruntled southern and northern expansionism and the exaggerated fears of Democratic Caesarism
, that brought about the Little Magician's political defeat at the hands of "Tippecanoe and Tyler too.
The second ("Caesar and the Czar") considers the foreign repercussions of Caesarism
on English drama: the spread of Caesarean authority to Turkey and Russia, and the impact of the Caesars on England's overseas exploration and colonization.
There is the Caesarism
of Caesar and Napoleon I, expressing "a complete revolution," "the historical phase of passage from one type of State to another type.