calque

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Related to Calques: loan translation

loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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calque

 (kălk)
tr.v. calqued, calque·ing, calques
To make a loan translation from (a word in another language).

[French, from calquer, to trace, copy, from Italian calcare, to press, from Latin calcāre, to tread on, from calx, heel.]

calque

(kælk)
n
(Linguistics) another word for loan translation
vb, calques, calquing or calqued
(Art Terms) (tr) another word for calk3
[C20: from French: a tracing, from calquer, from Latin calcāre to tread]

calque

(kælk)

n., v. calqued, cal•quing. n. v.t.
2. to form (a word or phrase) through the process of loan translation.
[1655–65; < French, n. derivative of calquer to copy, base on]

calque


Past participle: calqued
Gerund: calquing

Imperative
calque
calque
Present
I calque
you calque
he/she/it calques
we calque
you calque
they calque
Preterite
I calqued
you calqued
he/she/it calqued
we calqued
you calqued
they calqued
Present Continuous
I am calquing
you are calquing
he/she/it is calquing
we are calquing
you are calquing
they are calquing
Present Perfect
I have calqued
you have calqued
he/she/it has calqued
we have calqued
you have calqued
they have calqued
Past Continuous
I was calquing
you were calquing
he/she/it was calquing
we were calquing
you were calquing
they were calquing
Past Perfect
I had calqued
you had calqued
he/she/it had calqued
we had calqued
you had calqued
they had calqued
Future
I will calque
you will calque
he/she/it will calque
we will calque
you will calque
they will calque
Future Perfect
I will have calqued
you will have calqued
he/she/it will have calqued
we will have calqued
you will have calqued
they will have calqued
Future Continuous
I will be calquing
you will be calquing
he/she/it will be calquing
we will be calquing
you will be calquing
they will be calquing
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been calquing
you have been calquing
he/she/it has been calquing
we have been calquing
you have been calquing
they have been calquing
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been calquing
you will have been calquing
he/she/it will have been calquing
we will have been calquing
you will have been calquing
they will have been calquing
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been calquing
you had been calquing
he/she/it had been calquing
we had been calquing
you had been calquing
they had been calquing
Conditional
I would calque
you would calque
he/she/it would calque
we would calque
you would calque
they would calque
Past Conditional
I would have calqued
you would have calqued
he/she/it would have calqued
we would have calqued
you would have calqued
they would have calqued
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.calque - an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language; "`superman' is a calque for the German `Ubermensch'"
locution, saying, expression - a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations; "pardon the expression"
Translations
kalk
käännöslaina
kalkkalkirati
tükörfordítás
lánsþýðing

calque

[kælk] Ncalco m (on de)
References in periodicals archive ?
These phenomena include the use of borrowings, calques, semantic extensions, nonce borrowings, code-switching and code-mixing.
Pour tarir le flux migratoire depuis l'Afrique, elle milite pour des accords calques sur celui conclu en mars entre l'UE et la Turquie.
Many Slavic compounds are clearly loan translations or calques.
Leading periodicals and dailies, such as La Lucha, La Discusion or Diario de la Marina, turned into a predictable showroom of loanwords and calques, through which a significant number of these lexical units were assimilated by Cuban Spanish.
Moving from paleoTV to neoTV, the lower number of redundant pronouns and possessive adjectives may suggest a minor influence of Toury's laws, but it is possible to assume the opposite view on syntactic and especially lexical and phraseological calques.
Lexical calque (of structure) - considered the most important of all types of calques as it represents a means of enriching the vocabulary with both new lexical units as well as with new meanings, in addition to those already existing for a particular word.
If I hadn't started out as a lexicographer, learning how to prioritise the word--or, rather, the social life of the word, its semantic trajectory across times and geographies, meaning translations, mistranslations, adaptations, calques, stratifications, duplications, oral and written language, dialects, jargons, slang; if I hadn't realised how instrumental literary authors and artists in general, their strategies in shaping sensibilities and minds are in bringing about an expansion of language and of its functions, I would never have felt legitimated to be an interpreter of literature and a literary critic.
These creative translations should avoid numerous calques and untranslated terms, which, according to researchers, gradually erode the native resources (Cronin 2010: 248).
The point about calques is that the derivative does not sound anything like its original: nevertheless, it betrays influence at every point.
Le marchand parle simple Veta et avec les autres, il utilise le meme langage qui ajoute des elements de jargon et des calques linguistiques: <<CHIRIAC: Lasa, jupine, ma ctii ca consimj la onoarea dumitale de familist.
Moreover, calques require a language user to be bilingual wherein loaning does not have such a requirement.
Du point de vue lexical, les nombreux emprunts, regionalismes et calques n'ont pas seulement la valeur de communiquer un signifie ou de designer un referent specifique: ils acquierent dans leur connotation la valeur adjointe d'ethnicite, d'exotisme, d'identite culturelle.