Among the new findings, based on data from 2016, are detection of resistance to carbapenems
in poultry, an antibiotic which is not authorised for use in animals, and of ESBL-producing Salmonella Kentucky with high resistance to ciprofloxacin in humans, which was reported for the first time in four countries.
This enzyme renders carbapenems
, considered a drug of last resort, ineffective.
After identification of gram negative rods by colony morphology, Gram's staining and biochemical reactions, these were screened for Carbapenems
resistance with imipenem and meropenem 10 ug discs along with routine first and second line antibiotics by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guide lines.
1],, The usage of carbapenems
is increasing dramatically in Chinese hospitals.
Conclusion: Among carbapenem
-resistant Acinetobacter species, the class D carbapenemases were the main mode of resistance to carbapenems
Data from hospitals show that use of the most powerful antibiotics increased significantly from 2006 to 2012, by nearly 40 percent for carbapenems
and more than 30 percent for vancomycin.
aureus Antibiotics (n = 36) (n = 12) (n = 6) S R S R S R Penicillin 30 6 8 4 6 0 Carbapenems
36 0 12 0 6 0 Quinolones 18 18 7 5 6 0 Monobactams 26 10 7 5 3 3 Cephalosporins 10 26 4 8 4 2 Aminoglycosides 18 18 10 2 6 0 Glycopeptides 0 36 0 12 6 0 Macrolides 0 36 0 12 2 4 Pseudomonas Proteus S.
The antibiotics investigated in the study included penicillins (ampicillin, carbenicillin and piperacillin), 1st generation cephalosporins (cephalothin), 2nd generation cephalosporins (cefuroxime, cefoxitin and cefaclor), 3rd generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime), 4th generation cephalosporins (cefepime) carbapenems
(imipenem) and monocyclic lactams (aztreonam).
and aminoglycosides were the two classes of drugs that showed highest activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
was developed in the 1980s are derivatives of thyanamycin.
These bacteria have become resistant to a large number of antibiotics, including carbapenems
and third-generation cephalosporins--the best available antibiotics for treating multidrug-resistant bacteria.
aureus and GNB isolates were evaluated using the disk diffusion test for resistance to methicillin and fluoroquinolones, and to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and carbapenems