It is also the fastest working of all cardiac glycosides
, with a significantly different mode of action and a larger therapeutic range which means a smaller risk for unwanted side effects.
First described in 1785 by William Withering, cardiac glycosides
have been used in the treatment of heart failure for > 200 years,  and digoxin had been the most commonly used of these compounds.
However, chronic use of cardiac glycosides
has several limitations, including a low therapeutic index, difficulty in therapeutic drug monitoring, and the propensity to induce arrhythmias.
Antidotes are only of potential value in the treatment of plants containing cardiac glycosides
and those that present with cholinergic and anticholinergic toxidromes.
Consider that cardiac patients today are prescribed multiple cardio drugs (such as cardiac glycosides
, anti-arrhythmics, anti-hypertensives, hypolipidemics, antianginals, anticoagulants, betablockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics and/or vasodilators)," explained Harry Rice, PhD, GOED's vice president of regulatory and scientific affairs.
According to  it was documented that the presence of steroids, phlobatanins, terpenes, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides
, flavonoids and some other phytochemical components have been associated with antimicrobial activities and thus have a curative properties against pathogens.
Acaricidal effects of cardiac glycosides
, azadirachtin and neem oil against the camel tick, Hyalomma dromedaril (Acari: Ixodidae) .
IR spectrum of compound A revealed the presence of characteristic butenyllactone ring of cardiac glycosides
(1739 and 1624 [cm.
The methanol and aqueous extracts were phytochemically screened for secondary metabolites such as Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Anthraquinone, Cardiac glycosides
, Saponins, Steroids and Triterpenes, Flavonoids, Tannins and Alkaloids .
work focused on the isolation and characterization of a malonyltransferase, a putative key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (including moclobemide), sympathomimetic amines, Beta-blockers and other antihypertensives, tricyclic antidepressants, ergot alkaloids, digoxin and cardiac glycosides
Nature lover Reza Khan said nerium oleander which grows in the wet wadi beds of the Hajar mountains is very poisonous and contains toxins like oleandrin and neriine which are cardiac glycosides