For this reason, Phaleas the Chalcedonian
first proposed, that the fortunes of the citizens should be equal, which he thought was not difficult to accomplish when a community was first settled, but that it was a work of greater difficulty in one that had been long established; but yet that it might be effected, and an equality of circumstances introduced by these means, that the rich should give marriage portions, but never receive any, while the poor should always receive, but never give.
The doctrinal controversies of the fifth century had left Christianity in the eastern Roman empire divided among Chalcedonians
, Miaphysites, and Nestorians.
Since "theologians as diverse as Cyril and Nestorius, Chalcedonians
, Maximus the Confessor and Monothelites all claimed Gregory's authority for their own doctrinal ends" (227), Hofer is more than doubtful about the adequacy of the Dogmengeschichte approach for the different Christologies before Chalcedon, and especially for Gregory's very distinctive account of Christ.
We learned the difference between Arius and Athanasius, Chalcedonians
and Monophysites, Orthodoxy and Catholicism, Catholics and Protestants, Calvinists and Arminians, Presbyterians and Methodists, evangelicals and Pentecostals, and so forth--but not much about what any of them may have in common.
She suggests that Dionysius had to look to apostolic authority, hence he took the pseudonym Dionysius in order to be accepted by Chalcedonians
The catholicos did not merely carry on conversations with the Chalcedonians
in western Syria or those sprinkled throughout the eastern regions where his churches were present.
, later called Orthodox, the Melchites were divided into three patriarchates: Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
In the heated controversies after the Council of 451 on the correct interpretation of pre-Chalcedonian
Christology, Cyril was the supreme authority that was claimed both by the Chalcedonians
and by the miaphysites for their own cause.
And the Chalcedonians
, before they came to share with the Byzantines in their government all used to pursue a better way of life.
In the East, the council failed to reconcile the Chalcedonians
and opened up the Eastern Church to a new festering dogmatic crisis, that of Monotheletism, the view that Christ had only one will, while deliberately leaving vague whether Christ as man had a truly operating free will in the union or whether there existed only one will in the union, that of the divine.
The statement that monks were troublesome because at times they belonged to "dissident" groups, such as the Anti-Chalcedonians
, is rather amusing, given that Chalcedonian
Christianity was hardly accepted (or suppressed) in huge swaths of the Near East, such as Egypt, Armenia, and Mesopotamia.
65 he repeats the old opinion that most Greek-speaking upper-class Egyptians were Chalcedonians
, which is surely no longer tenable.