The preferment of his house reached as far back as the time of Charles IX
If there are any Valois, they descend from Charles de Valois, Duc d'Angouleme, son of Charles IX
Well," said he, "I will ask you the same question which Charles IX
At the time, Nostradamus feared that he would be beheaded, but by the time of his death in 1566, Queen Catherine had made him Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to her son, the young King Charles IX
It uses the sociological theories of Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu to examine the work of six writers from the 19th century that illustrate the French nationalization of feelings, thoughts, and habits: Olympe de Gouges' pre-revolutionary pamphlets and her quasi-autobiographical novel Madame de Valmont's Memoirs; Francois Rene de Chateaubriand's Historical Essay on Revolutions and The Genius of Christianity; Germaine de Stail's On Literature, On Germany, Delphine, and Corinne; Stendhal's Chronicles for England and Memoirs of a Tourist; Prosper Merimee's A Chronicle of the Reign of Charles IX
, Corsican novellas, and essay on the Mormons; and George Sand's novels, including Nanon and Franca.
Chang and Kong commence with a detailed Introduction that summarises Catherine's access of forms of power during the reigns of her husband, Henri II, and sons, Francois II, Charles IX
, and Henri III.
Nor is 16th-century French history bereft of interest, whether the libertine behaviour of Francis I and Henri II (killed after a lance pierced his armour during a jousting tournament), the psychological torments of Charles IX
or the assassination of Henri III by a deranged Dominican friar.
Mais le roi de France Charles IX
decida, par l'Eedit de Roussillon, que l'annee debuterait desormais le 1er janvier, marque du rallongement des journees, au lieu de fin mars, arrivee du printemps.
Mary Eckman's essay on Jeanne d'Albret (1528-1572), for example, provides a close reading of the ruler's autobiographical writings as a clear exposition on her own legitimacy in the face of attacks by the French King Charles IX
and the ultra-Catholic Guise party.
If Hotman's pamphlet emphasizes the event's bloodiness, then one of the earliest collections of massacre accounts, Simon Goulart's Memoires de l'estat de France sous Charles ix
(1576), emphasizes its tyranny, suggesting, as Robert Kingdon puts it, that "these massacres had been caused by a government become so authoritarian that it had gone berserk and become a tyranny ruthlessly intent on extinguishing traditional rights of individuals" (5).
Cropper offers three literary responses to the gentrification of the upper middle class through hunting (Balzac's pro-old regime Adieu, Merimee's anti-monarchic Chronique du regne de Charles IX
, and Maupassant's anti-bourgeois "La Parure"), but these works are somewhat overshadowed by the less than literary but fascinating writings of two men: Elzear Blaze, whose work promotes a democratization of the hunt and Eugene Chapus, whose manuals and periodicals encourage bourgeois imitation and appropriation of aristocratic manners and modes.
The period from the death of King Gustavus Vasa in 1560 until Charles IX
was crowned the King of Sweden in 1607 was marked by confusion about the succession to the throne, by strained relations with Poland as well as by tensions between the Catholic Counter-Reformation and Lutheranism and between the king and the nobility.