Afferent limb of vomiting reflex from mechano- and chemoreceptors
in the gastrointestinal tract is relayed via vagus nerve to the nucleus tractus solitarius in the brainstem.
Tight correlation between the ventilatory cycle duration and left ventricular ejection fraction has led to a conclusion that low cardiac output and timely transport of the chemostimuli to the chemoreceptors
are responsible for the prolonged ventilatory cycle in CHF patients (70).
11-113) However, compared with the CBs, the characteristics and mechanisms of hypoxia detection are still poorly defined in non-CB chemoreceptors
including sensory and vagal neurons.
It is either due to stimulation by chemoreceptors
due to acid or hyperosmolar substances, mechano receptors by distension or thermo receptors by hot and cold food19.
Feeding behavior or preference for particular host species depends on the various sensilla present on the insects' mouthparts, including olfactory, gustatory, and mechanosensory ones, which are involved in sensory perception via chemoreceptors
(Dey et al.
Discrimination of the different stimuli is mediated by peripheral chemoreceptors
grouped within a varied array of cuticular sensory organs called sensilla, which are located mainly on the cephalothoracic appendages including antennae, maxillipeds (mouthparts), antennules, and pereiopods (walking legs) (Schmidt and Mellon, 2011; Thiel and Breithaupt, 2011).
Involuntary ventilatory rate is determined by pH-sensing central chemoreceptors
of the surface of medlla oblougata and by oxygen- and carbon dioxide-sensing peripheral chemoreceptors
, with the impulse transferred to the glossopharyngeal nerve (nervus IX) and the vagus nerve (nerves X).
Esophageal pain is due to stimulation by chemoreceptors
due to acid or hyperosmolar substances, mechano-receptors by distension or thermos-receptors by hot and cold food.
1998) has correlated the sensory response of chemoreceptors
on the insects' mouth parts to antifeedant activity.
Actually, hyperventilation is immediate when settling in at altitude and comes from the stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors
situated in carotidian bodies, sensitive to [O.
in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information with regard to the blood gas levels of [O.
Those ciliated sensory endings structures present on the body surface may be rheo-or tango or chemoreceptors
aiding in orientation of the parasite's body with respect to gill architecture and in relation to the direction and flow of ventilation water currents.