Nicole Eggers unveils how Bushiri's use of the chicotte
during the 1944 Kitawalist movement in Eastern Congo both mirrored and critiqued colonial violence.
The Jupiter and Chicotte formations are the uppermost units exposed on Anticosti Island (Copper & Long 1990; Brunton & Copper 1994).
The Jumper Cliff section exposes 8 m of the Pavillon Member in the uppermost Jupiter Formation and 6 m of the basal Chicotte Formation (Clayer 2012).
Forced labor, hostages, slave chains, starving porters, burned villages, paramilitary companies 'sentries,' and the chicotte [whipping] were the order of the day.
The authorities sanctioned terror and permitted each capita, an African foreman to administer the bulk of Chicotte to torture bodies of other Africans.
Discipline was enforced by armed mine police and by the chicotte
, a whip of sun-dried hippopotamus hide with razor-sharp edges, whose blows were meticulously tabulated: Records from one group of northeastern Congo gold camps register 26,579 lashes applied to miners during the first half of 1920 alone.
Stressing the link between colonial ideology and physical violence, the chicotte
is ironically metaphorised as "this civilizing instrument par excellence whose advantage was to mark the body directly in order to better encrust the civilizing seed into it" (Mpoyi-Buatu 1986: 151).
Dans cette classe surpeuplee dirigee par un enseignant alcoolique, le petit Pahe decouvre, outre l'imposition du chant quotidien de l'hymne national, La Concorde, diverses violences physiques exercees a l'encontre des ecoliers (coups de chicotte
, coups de poings) ainsi que des punitions en tout genre (nettoyage des sanitaires, coupe des herbes hautes entourant l'ecole, etc.
Mais il porte aussi en lui, plus nefaste encore peut-etre que la chicotte
des exploiteurs, le mepris de l'homme, la haine de l'homme, bref le racisme.
And forced labor, hostage taking, and beatings with the infamous hippopotamus,skin whip called the chicotte
continued until World War II.
5) A chicotte
is a whip made of hippopotamus skin that has been cut into sharp-edged, corkscrew-shaped strips.
Most of the Llandovery strata were formed below the storm wave base, except the Chicotte