(CBs) are used in engine-block cleaners, solvents, pesticides, pharmaceutical intermediates and for the synthesis of chlorophenols and disinfectants.
Over the last decades large areas have been exposed, by industrial activities, to contamination by chlorobenzenes
(CBs), chlorophenols (CPs), polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and furanes (PCDDs and PCDFs), chorinated pesticides, polychloro-biphenyls (PCBs) and the side products.
Aquatic plants have shown their effectiveness in removing organic pollutants such as phenols, organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds, chlorobenzenes
, and even pesticides .
For instance, significantly reduced bioaccumulation in clams (Macoma balthica) was observed for benzo[a]pyrene and penta chlorobenzenes
(PCBs) when contaminants were associated with activated carbon (a type of BC) compared with association with wood or diatoms (McLeod et al.
To facilitate intake estimation, pesticides were grouped into HCH compounds ([alpha]-HCH, [beta]-HCH, [gamma]-HCH, [delta]-HCH, [epsilon]-HCH), DDT and DDT metabolites [o,p-DDT, p,p'-DDT, o,p-DDE p,p'-DDE, o,p-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane (o,p-DDD), p,p'-DDD], endosulfan compounds ([alpha]-, [beta]-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate), toxaphenes (toxaphene-26, toxaphene-50, toxaphene-62), aldrins (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin), heptachlor (heptachlor, cis-heptachlor epoxide, trans-heptachlor epoxide, trans-nonachlor), chlordanes ([alpha]-chlordane, [beta]-chlordane, oxychlordane), and chlorobenzenes
2001; Novotny et al 2001, 2003; Hatvani and Mecs 2003 Benzopyrenes (PAHs) Incinerators Qiu and McFarland 1991 Chlorinated aromatic Transformers, lighting Gadd 2001 compounds: fixtures, paper pentachlorophenol products, chlorine (PCP), trichlorophenol bleaching, paints and (TCP), polychlorinated coatings biphenyls (PCBs) dioxins, chlorobenzenes
Copper/chromium Treated wood Humar et al.
In a review of thyrotoxicity and industrial chemicals, 77 chemicals are listed as having proven links to thyroid damage, these include PCBs, dioxins, chlorobenzenes
, phenols and related chemicals (Brucker-Davis 1998).
Dioxins and furans, chlorobenzenes
, heavy metals and other materials were byproducts from the manufacture of chlorine-based products and other chemicals.
36) The most severe contamination is found in polar bears, which exhibit very high levels of contamination by PCBs, DDT, chlordane, and chlorobenzenes
, and which suffer reproductive, neurobehavioral, and immune problems linked to this contamination.