As for Mendelssohn's oratorio St Paul, Heine did not want to find fault with its Christianness
because its composer was by birth a Jew.
Methodologically, I draw upon Denise Buell's concept of "ethnic reasoning"--early Christian texts' use of "culturally available understandings of human difference, which we can analyze in terms of our modern concepts of 'ethnicity,' 'race,' and 'religion,' to shape what we have come to call a religious tradition and to portray particular forms of Christianness as universal and authoritative.
Rather, contemporaneous with Justin's own construction of Christianness .
She examines how the epistle deliberately shapes emerging Christianness
by providing ideological and social paradigms for the community of Christ-followers.
Clearly, these people were (wrongly) perceived as lacking the requirements of belonging: whiteness, Christianness
, intelligence, inventiveness and goodness.
Indeed, Christian rhetoric against other groups, be they Jews or Gnostics, often included the charges that said groups reckoned their identity in a fixed manner in contrast to Christianity's fluidity: "Ethnic reasoning is an effective rhetorical device for those seeking to gain authority for their visions of Christianness in part because they can use it to persuade readers to think of themselves and others using collective strategies" (p.
However, Christian collective self-definition that relied upon ethnic or racial terminology was made to serve a universalist purpose by positing Christianness "as the ideal or most authentic form of humanness" (p.
Tomasch's conclusion is particularly suggestive: "What is important in appraising a writer such as Chaucer is [that] given his Englishness and his Christianness
, Chaucer could not help but contribute to the ongoing allosemitic construction of the virtual Jew.
There is a profound sense among many of these writers that Christians live in a post-institutional church--an age of the Holy Spirit or the realm of Christianness
Indeed, Western scholars typically viewed mission-related churches as the norm by which the Christianness
of indigenous forms was to be judged.
It is in this sense that I speak not of the sunset of Christianity but of the dawn of Christianness.
The word "Christian" may be the adjective of Christendom (a civilization), of Christianity (a religion), or of Christianness (a personal -- not individualistic spirituality).