had non-Xhosa-speaking white psychiatrists who depended on interpreters.
Numerous efforts by the police to evict people, including forcibly removing them to the Transkei and Ciskei
, failed to stem the flow of people to the area.
They were later joined by the Ciskei
to become the so-called TBVC states.
Sexual abuse of young women by powerful men is the major plot catalyst, but the book wanders through many other situations: dreary life in the impoverished Ciskei
, the arrogance of rich white women (always a favourite topic in such works--white men incur much less blame), the corruption of the police and the removal under apartheid of worthy community leaders.
From October to November 1918, Spanish Influenza ravaged the Transkei and Ciskei
in the rural eastern Cape, where the virus was called umbathalala, the "disaster" in Xhosa language.
This agency will amalgamate the members of the existing National Intelligence Service, the intelligence services of the former states of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei
, the intelligence service of the African National Congress namely the Department of Intelligence and Security, as well as any other intelligence capabilities that meet with the necessary requirements set out in the Act.
Fort Hare is located in what used to be the (nominally independent) homeland of Ciskei
, and within a short time, it became just one of the so-called "black" universities.
Id In 1970, under the Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act, the ten homelands became the nations of Bophuthatswana, Ciskei
, Gazankulu, KwaNgwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, QuaQua, Transkei, and Venda.
This task was made all the more difficult by the virulent support given to the concept by the homeland authorities of Ciskei
and Bophuthatswana and the self-governing state of KwaZulu which was under the control of the Inkatha Freedom Party.
Bongani Blessing Finca is director of Lovedale Press in the Ciskei
, South Africa.
The Constitution also provides for the repeal of South African legislation which recognises the "independence" of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei
b) When the Minister of Law and Order, or the appropriate functionary exercising corresponding powers provided for in corresponding legislation of the Republic of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda or Ciskei
or any self-governing territory, issues directives of the nature contemplated in section 4 of the Police Act, 1958, the said Minister or functionary shall inform the Subcouncil thereof.