The measure of information is defined formally as entropy, a term that Claude Shannon
borrowed from quantum mechanics.
The duo of Claude Shannon
and Ed Thorpe enter as card players seeking to beat the dealer.
The logician and the engineer; how George Boole and Claude Shannon
created the information age.
In 1945, mathematicians like Claude Shannon
were boiling down all communicable information to the existence of two symbols (0 and 1).
Gertner reveals its ingenuity through profiles of the lab's quirky, often battling scientists, including Mervin Kelly, president of the Labs; William Shockley, one of the inventors of the transistor, or electron semiconductor; and Claude Shannon
, a man who roamed the corridors of the Labs on a Pogo Stick and won a Nobel for his work on information theory.
Gertner's story is the interaction between three leaders of Bell Labs in its critical years--Mervin Kelly, Jim Fisk, and Robert Baker--and three of its greatest scientific minds: William Shockley, Claude Shannon
, and William Pierce.
Beginning in the 1980s, and then especially during the '90s, many physicists worked on understanding information in the quantum sense, building on the standard classical theory of information devised by Claude Shannon
several decades earlier.
With the work of Claude Shannon
and Warren Weaver, published as The Mathematical Theory of Communication in 1949, attention shifted to the technologies themselves.
Information theory, first devised in 1948 by Claude Shannon
, sees information and uncertainty as numerical quantities, measured in 'bits', that correspond with the extent to which the recipient of a message is surprised by that message ('surprisal').
Coined by information theory pioneer Claude Shannon
, it is called 'Shannon's Maxim' and it states, simply, 'The enemy knows the system.
While rather questionable, his mathematical model of communication, developed together with Claude Shannon
, would consolidate the idea of translation as a mere question of "breaking the code" and would initiate two decades of frantic activities and huge resource and budgetary investments, embedded altogether in the specific dynamics of the Cold War, to attain the so called "Fully Automated High Quality Machine Translation," mainly from Russian into English.