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This group of men and women, all tolerably intelligent and thoughtful looking, are so-called enemies of society--Nihilists, Anarchists, Communards, members of the International,and so on.
In their successful May 1871 assault on the capital, troops summarily shot anyone they suspected of being a Communard, and the number of their victims certainly was far above the seventeen thousand for whom the municipal government paid burial expenses.
The Commune's principles of voluntary federation and free association, centred on their notion of 'the Universal Republic' that went 'beyond the cellular regime of nationality', are explored through the likes of the Women's Union for the Defence of Paris and Aid to the Wounded; famed shoemaker Napoleon Gaillard, philosopher of the shoe, builder and artist of the barricade, and inventor of rubber galoshes; and Eugene Pottier, decorative artist, champion of integral education and author of the 'International' which he dedicated to fellow Communard Gustave Lefrancais.
Louise Michel is probably best known for her role as a Communard, that is, as a participant and supporter of the Paris Commune of 1871, which was one response to the Social Question.
Auguste-Jean-Marie Vermorel, a socialist journalist, was gravely wounded on the boulevard during the "Semaine Sanglante," that "bloody week" that ended the Communard dream.
Over the course of 800-plus rollicking pages, Murphy takes us from the discretely subversive summer poems of 1870 through the metrically revolutionary "derniers vers" of 1872, in passing through a truly insightful reading of the oft-commented "seer letters" of May 1871 and the explicitly Communard poems that these letters contain precisely as a kind of poetic praxis illustrating Rimbaud's (in) famous theory of poetic "voyance" (cf.
19) The Communard trials provoked widely divergent responses even as harsh military-court penalties raised anxiety among the press and public.
Among the headstones, Bowd came across a simple black stone with the intriguing epitaph: 'Adrien Lejeune, dernier communard, decede a Novosibirsk URSS 1942'.
This article will examine how Versailles attempted to portray Vincent's action as symbolic of communard deceit; how it became virtually impossible for the Commune to regain the trust of library managers and employees; and how Elie Reclus, a widely respected humanitarian and academic, was faced with the challenging task of managing the library and protecting its collection during the final five weeks of the Commune's existence.
Indeed, Kuhlmann quotes one communard as wondering why behavioral psychology attracts so many "control freaks" (75).
A close reading of these texts and images reveals that while Marville's collection of juxtaposed photographs conforms to the officially promoted view of the city as a modern, healthy and hygienic metropolis and, as such, constitutes an effective denial of the memory of Communard Paris, the ironies and ambiguities presented in the descriptions of the city by Le Monde illustre's pseudonymous reporter would, on the contrary, suggest that the memory of the recent past cannot be so easily erased.
Goncourt's elation is that Communard "artistes" have turned the Hotel de Ville into an exotic palace.

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