The impetus behind the First Crusade centers upon an appeal for assistance by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus
(1081-1118), who "had stabilized [his] empire and was keen to take military advantage of the chaos in the Islamic lands.
It was also a place of refuge for Cypriot king Isaac Comnenus
who escaped when the British king Richard the Lion Heart defeated him in a battle outside Limassol.
Cameron focuses on Byzantium and mainly on the elite circles of its capital, Constantinople in the long 12th century: the Comnenian period, from the seizure of the throne by Alexius I Comnenus
in 1081 to the sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204.
Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus
, Columbia University Press, New York, 1976.
In an attempt to curtail the Muslim victory, the Byzantine Emperor, Alexios I Comnenus
, sought to align Christianity against a common enemy, with the request of Western aid.
Amalric's successive campaigns drew Nur-al-Din and the Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus
into a regional power struggle, which ended unpredictably with Saladin's takeover of Egypt and Syria.
A fortified monastery stood here in the 12th century, from which Isc Comnenus
negotiated his surrender to Richard the Lionheart.
Luke was hidden there; Comnenus
King Manuel III, 1390-1412, presented Soumela with a piece of the True Cross; and for 1600 years the monks had taken care of the icon of the Holy Virgin.
The defeat suffered by the Emperor Manuel Comnenus
at Myriokephalon was the result of both arrogance and stupidity on his part.
Messengers from the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus
had urged the pope to send help against the armies of Muslim Turks.
In the 11th century, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus
made the first recorded reference to a distinct area of land known as Albania and to its people.
The ban on women originated some time between the 10th and 12th centuries, with historians telling us that it was the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus
who banned the female of all species.