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 (kən-found′, kŏn-)
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at perplex.
2. To fail to distinguish; mix up: Don't confound fiction and fact.
3. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
4. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
5. Used in mild curses: Confound you!
a. To frustrate or thwart: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
b. Archaic To defeat or overthrow (an enemy).

[Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.]

con·found′er n.
con·found′ing·ly adv.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Adj.1.confounding - that confounds or contradicts or confuses
unsupportive - not furnishing support or assistance
References in periodicals archive ?
Preexisting disease is an important potential confounding factor that must be considered in the uptick in risk observed at the bottom end of a J-shaped curve.
They cover test-retest reliability and validity of three indirect tasks assessing implicit threat associations and behavioral response tendencies; implicit self-esteem predicts observed or spontaneous behavior but not self-reported or controlled behavior; the convergence of direct, indirect, and objective risk-taking measures in gambling; a multi-measure investigation of the divergence of implicit and explicit consumer evaluations; using community data to test the discriminant validity of ethnic or racial group implicit association test; the role of self-related heuristics in prejudice implicit association test effects; intelligence as a confounding factor in the implicit association test effect; and common themes and unresolved questions around implicit measures of social cognition.
One confounding factor, notes McCarthy, is the melting of glaciers since Earth's last ice age.
Another major confounding factor is that Web sites are dynamic, i.
An additional confounding factor has been the interactive relationship of years of counselor work experience with rehabilitation counselor education in relation to client outcome.
Confounding factor such as these can, well, confound the results and lead to incorrect conclusions.
Another confounding factor in assessing regional spending is that one out of every three dollars in the city budget is not directly allocated to the department that provides the services.
The duration of pill use did not influence the prevalence of misconceptions, nor was age a confounding factor for misconceptions.
Therefore, age was not a confounding factor or effect modifier for DHF case-patients in Tainan's 1998 epidemic.
1998), such weaknesses of association may occur because BPb is not a sufficiently sensitive biomarker of exposure or dose at the target organ(s) or because the relationships involved are biologically irrelevant and are only found because of an uncontrolled confounding factor.
One limitation of the metaanalysis is that none of the studies evaluated aspirin or NSAID use itself as a possible confounding factor, they noted, because patients who ingest aspirin may be more likely to take NSAIDs and vice versa.
2003) except for the inclusion of intervention status as a potential confounding factor.