confound

(redirected from Confounding variable)
Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

con·found

 (kən-found′, kŏn-)
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at perplex.
2. To fail to distinguish; mix up: Don't confound fiction and fact.
3. To make (something bad) worse: Do not confound the problem by losing your temper.
4. To cause to be ashamed; abash: an invention that confounded the skeptics.
5. Used in mild curses: Confound you!
6.
a. To frustrate or thwart: trivial demands that confounded the peace talks.
b. Archaic To defeat or overthrow (an enemy).

[Middle English confounden, from Anglo-Norman confundre, from Latin cōnfundere, to mix together, confuse : com-, com- + fundere, to pour; see gheu- in Indo-European roots.]

con·found′er n.
con·found′ing·ly adv.

confound

(kənˈfaʊnd)
vb (tr)
1. to astound or perplex; bewilder
2. to mix up; confuse
3. to treat mistakenly as similar to or identical with (one or more other things)
4. to curse or damn (usually as an expletive in the phrase confound it!)
5. to contradict or refute (an argument, etc)
6. to rout or defeat (an enemy)
7. obsolete to waste
[C13: from Old French confondre, from Latin confundere to mingle, pour together, from fundere to pour]
conˈfoundable adj
conˈfounder n

con•found

(kɒnˈfaʊnd, kən-; for 6 usu. ˈkɒnˈfaʊnd)

v.t.
1. to perplex or amaze; bewilder; confuse.
2. to throw into confusion or disorder.
3. to throw into increased confusion or disorder.
4. to treat or regard erroneously as identical; mix or associate by mistake: truth confounded with error.
5. to mingle so that the elements cannot be distinguished or separated.
6. to damn (used in mild imprecations): Confound it!
7. to contradict or refute.
8. to put to shame; abash.
9. Archaic.
a. to defeat or overthrow.
b. to bring to ruin or naught.
[1250–1300; Middle English < Anglo-French confoundre < Latin confundere to mix]
con•found′er, n.
con•found′ing•ly, adv.

confound


Past participle: confounded
Gerund: confounding

Imperative
confound
confound
Present
I confound
you confound
he/she/it confounds
we confound
you confound
they confound
Preterite
I confounded
you confounded
he/she/it confounded
we confounded
you confounded
they confounded
Present Continuous
I am confounding
you are confounding
he/she/it is confounding
we are confounding
you are confounding
they are confounding
Present Perfect
I have confounded
you have confounded
he/she/it has confounded
we have confounded
you have confounded
they have confounded
Past Continuous
I was confounding
you were confounding
he/she/it was confounding
we were confounding
you were confounding
they were confounding
Past Perfect
I had confounded
you had confounded
he/she/it had confounded
we had confounded
you had confounded
they had confounded
Future
I will confound
you will confound
he/she/it will confound
we will confound
you will confound
they will confound
Future Perfect
I will have confounded
you will have confounded
he/she/it will have confounded
we will have confounded
you will have confounded
they will have confounded
Future Continuous
I will be confounding
you will be confounding
he/she/it will be confounding
we will be confounding
you will be confounding
they will be confounding
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been confounding
you have been confounding
he/she/it has been confounding
we have been confounding
you have been confounding
they have been confounding
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been confounding
you will have been confounding
he/she/it will have been confounding
we will have been confounding
you will have been confounding
they will have been confounding
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been confounding
you had been confounding
he/she/it had been confounding
we had been confounding
you had been confounding
they had been confounding
Conditional
I would confound
you would confound
he/she/it would confound
we would confound
you would confound
they would confound
Past Conditional
I would have confounded
you would have confounded
he/she/it would have confounded
we would have confounded
you would have confounded
they would have confounded
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Verb1.confound - be confusing or perplexing toconfound - be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly; "These questions confuse even the experts"; "This question completely threw me"; "This question befuddled even the teacher"
demoralize - confuse or put into disorder; "the boss's behavior demoralized everyone in the office"
bewilder, dumbfound, flummox, baffle, mystify, nonplus, perplex, puzzle, stupefy, amaze, gravel, vex, pose, stick, beat, get - be a mystery or bewildering to; "This beats me!"; "Got me--I don't know the answer!"; "a vexing problem"; "This question really stuck me"
disconcert, flurry, confuse, put off - cause to feel embarrassment; "The constant attention of the young man confused her"
disorient, disorientate - cause to be lost or disoriented
be - have the quality of being; (copula, used with an adjective or a predicate noun); "John is rich"; "This is not a good answer"
2.confound - mistake one thing for another; "you are confusing me with the other candidate"; "I mistook her for the secretary"
misidentify, mistake - identify incorrectly; "Don't mistake her for her twin sister"
obnubilate, obscure, blur, confuse - make unclear, indistinct, or blurred; "Her remarks confused the debate"; "Their words obnubilate their intentions"
mix up, jumble, confuse - assemble without order or sense; "She jumbles the words when she is supposed to write a sentence"

confound

verb
1. bewilder, baffle, amaze, confuse, astonish, startle, mix up, astound, perplex, surprise, mystify, flummox, boggle the mind, be all Greek to (informal), dumbfound, nonplus, flabbergast (informal) For many years medical scientists were confounded by these seemingly contradictory facts.
2. disprove, contradict, refute, negate, destroy, ruin, overwhelm, explode, overthrow, demolish, annihilate, give the lie to, make a nonsense of, prove false, blow out of the water (slang), controvert, confute The findings confound all the government's predictions.

confound

verb
1. To cause to be unclear in mind or intent:
Informal: throw.
Idiom: make one's head reel.
2. To cause (a person) to be self-consciously distressed:
3. To make incapable of finding something to think, do, or say:
Informal: flummox, stick, stump, throw.
Slang: beat.
Idiom: put someone at a loss.
4. To take (one thing) mistakenly for another:
Translations
يُربِك، يُحيّر، يُذهِل
ohromitzmást
forvirre
rugla; gera höggdofa
pritrenkti
apmulsinātizjaukt

confound

[kənˈfaʊnd] VT (= confuse) → confundir; (= amaze) → pasmar, desconcertar
confound it! (o.f.) → ¡demonio!
confound him! (o.f.) → ¡maldito sea!

confound

[kɒnˈfaʊnd] vt
(= confuse) → confondre
(= amaze) → déconcerter

confound

vt
(= amaze)verblüffen
(= throw into confusion)verwirren, durcheinanderbringen
(liter: = mistake for sth else) → verwechseln
(inf) confound it!vermaledeit (dated)or verflixt (inf)noch mal!; confound him!der vermaledeite (dated)or verflixte (inf)Kerl!

confound

[kənˈfaʊnd] vt (confuse) → confondere; (amaze) → sconcertare; (defeat) → sconfiggere
confound it! → al diavolo!

confound

(kənˈfaund) verb
to puzzle and surprise greatly.
References in periodicals archive ?
There's a natural tendency to see our findings and conclude that, surely, the higher mortality rates are because of some confounding variable, like income or education, and not the loss of trees," Donovan said.
Discussions of group and cooperative learning have often ignored individual difference as potential confounding variable.
The article by Myles et al is a perfect example of the discovery of the effects of a confounding variable.
Patient hematocrit continues to be a confounding variable with many glucose-meter technologies, with overestimation of glucose values at low hematocrit and underestimation at higher hematocrit.
Nevertheless, he, too, points out a potentially confounding variable.
A confounding variable was the gastrointestinal symptoms of soldiers who were taking weekly malaria prophylaxis, which often caused similar, although less severe, digestive symptoms.
Intrinsic fluorescence was a greater confounding variable than was quenching.
That's a huge potential confounding variable," noted Dr.
It is reasonable that the intensity of the instructors may have created a confounding variable affecting the results.
This decline in FAEE concentrations is not a confounding variable because the concentrations of FAEEs that remained were far greater than those found in animals not exposed to ethanol.
OC use therefore may represent a confounding variable in previous sleep studies that compare healthy and depressed patients, said Dr.