Previously, the cooper pair
effect was not associated with photons.
The experiments are: measuring the lifetime of single quasiparticle and excited Cooper pair
states in superconductors, a topic relevant for quantum information processing; determining whether graphene has a bandgap, a fundamental yet unresolved question; and recording a clear spectroscopic signature of Majorana bound states in topological superconductor weak links.
Later, Animalou  and Animalou and Santilli  extended the model to consider the Cooper pair
in superconductivity as a hadronic bound state of two identical electrons.
Researchers at NIST uncovered an important clue to this mystery by showing that a previously unappreciated factor has a strong effect on the amount of unpaired electrons in Cooper pair
Two electrons mutually attracted to positively charged ions in a material lattice can couple to form a Cooper pair
, which is crucial for superconductivity.
Topics include quantum cryptography with bipartite bound entangled states, communications channels in infinite dimensions, thermal entanglement in infinite dimensional systems, information processing with low-dimensional systems, algorithms and complexity, error correction and fault tolerance, classical and quantum fingerprinting in one-way communication, state transfer in permanently coupled chains, quantum walk asymptotics, and applications topics ranging from cavity quantum electrodynamics to carbon nanotubes and Cooper pair
splitting by Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, solid state, entangled light from optical time boundaries and working from network complexity to time complexity with optimal control.
We understand theoretically what characterizes a superconductor: Electrons of opposite momentum form an unusual quantum state of zero energy called a Cooper pair
A proper interaction between two such ripples brings the electrons into a Cooper pair
Electrons usually repel each other due to their negative charge, but the physicists saw evidence that the electrons partnered to form Cooper pairs
, which glide through a material without scattering.
These properties are due to the electrons being grouped in Cooper pairs
, behaving as bosons.