covariate


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covariate

(ˈkəʊˌvɛərɪɪt)
n
(Statistics) a statistical variable that changes in a predictable way and can be used to predict the outcome of a study
References in classic literature ?
But the first, who was a dapple gray, observing me to steal off, neighed after me in so expressive a tone, that I fancied myself to understand what he meant; whereupon I turned back, and came near to him to expect his farther commands: but concealing my fear as much as I could, for I began to be in some pain how this adventure might terminate; and the reader will easily believe I did not much like my present situation.
In particular, if that covariate has an even greater positive weight in [[beta].
Without minimization, inclusion of a covariate adjusts away the error arising from differences in the means (or in the case of the outcome in Figure 1, the analysis reduces the effect of the difference between the group and population means).
The reasoning for these objectives was to evaluate whether using the covariate "species" in the multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) engine of Program DISTANCE (Thomas et al.
First, this kind of imputation changes the distribution of the missing-valued covariate and secondly the mean and standard error of the sample statistics is changed.
Chi-square tests were used to identify associations between each covariate and the risk of preterm birth, as well as between each covariate and race and ethnicity (Arab American or non-Arab white).
F values are obtained when the variable in the column head is the covariate.
The proposed method of analysis is based on a growing literature on design of covariate balanced randomized clinical trials (Pocock and Simon 1975; Wei 1978; Atkinson 1982; Signorini et al.
Spatial analysis with terrain attributes represented by numerical surface models as covariate to predict soil units were exemplified for McBratney et al.
We considered several approaches for urine dilution adjustment of arsenic concentrations: 1) no adjustment; 2) creatinine as an independent covariate in the regression model; 3) arsenic concentration divided by creatinine concentration ([micro]g/g); 4) covariate-adjusted standardization of arsenic concentration divided by creatinine concentration ([micro]g/g); 5) osmolality as an independent covariate in the regression model; 6) arsenic concentration divided by osmolality ([micro]g/mOsm/kg); 7) urinary flow rate as an independent covariate in the regression model; and 8) arsenic concentration multiplied by urinary flow rate to obtain excretion rate ([micro]g/hour).
We then used weighted model averaging based on model weights (w) calculated based on AICc to estimate the effect size and unconditional standard error of each covariate on occupancy (Burnham and Anderson, 2002; Doherty et al, 2012).
The final compartmental model included a categorical covariate to account for this lag in absorption as well as body weight as a covariate of total body clearance (relative to unknown bioavailability).