It occurs when cryoglobulins
- abnormal proteins in the blood - thicken and clump together, restricting blood flow to surrounding organs and causing damage to blood vessels.
The presence of cryoglobulins
suggests mixed cryoglobulinemia as a diagnosis, often due to hepatitis C infection.
For example, regardless of their nature, it is important that substances that can lead to clumping of formed elements that might affect flow cytometric measurements, such as cryoglobulins
or other RBC agglutinins, elevated fibrinogen, macroglobulins, or naturally occurring factors that lead to platelet clumping, rouleaux, or other conditions such as polycythemia or thrombocytopenia, be recognized and corrected for by image analysis.
We believe that the low prevalence of mixed cryoglobulinemia is related to the referral of patients to other services and not due to error in detecting cryoglobulins
A further workup was initiated to rule out any connective tissue disorders, and antinuclear antibody (quantitative), cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, and serum cryoglobulins
were found to be normal.
C3, C4, rheumatoid factor, anti- dsDNA, anti-smith, Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, antitopoisomerase, anti-centromere, anti-Ro, anti-La, anti- RNP, anti-Jo1 and cryoglobulins
all were negative.
, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus hepatitis, antistreptolysin O, several autoantibodies (including antinuclear antibodies, antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody, and rheumatoid factor), and serum/urine immunofixation electrophoresis were all negative.
3) Rheumatoid factor, antiphospholipid antibodies, and cryoglobulins
also can be considered.
The existence of cryoglobulins
in the serum may be a clue of an extensive and more severe infection.
and the levels of complement were analyzed in patients who had positive serologic tests for rheumatoid factor (RF).
The following investigations were done: complete haemogram, renal and liver function tests, urine analysis, antinuclear antibody (ANA), antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), Rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), cryoglobulins
, lupus anticoagulant, HBsAg, anti HCV antibody, anti streptolysin O (ASO) titre, throat swab for culture and sensitivity, Chest X-ray and Mantoux test.
Authors noted that the presence of cryoglobulins
coincided with persistent arthralgias.