The connections of suspension system are modelled as a system of linear springs and viscous dashpots
in the vertical direction.
Classical constitutive modeling is the diverse combination of springs and dashpots
[12-16], for example, the Maxwell (M) and Kelvin (K) models, Burger model, generalized Maxwell model (GMM), and other models [17, 18].
2] are the viscosities of the Maxwell and the Kelvin dashpots
, respectively ,
The viscous components can be modeled as dashpots
such that the stress-strain rate relationship can be given as,
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When the unbonded particles or particles with bond breakage are in contact with each other, springs and dashpots
are introduced into the contact points in both normal and tangential directions, and compressive normal force [f.
, and spring-dashpot
combinations are used to represent superelasticity (SE), the shape memory effect (SME), and the SE-SME combination, respectively.
Most visco-elastic models consist of a combination of springs and dashpots
Many conventional hardness machines have dashpots
, solenoids, or other mechanisms to apply load smoothly and avoid impact.
The Kelvin body is an appropriately constructed circuit of springs (to model elasticity) and dashpots
(to model viscosity).
Spring and dashpots
are frequently used to make theoretical models which illustrate the interaction of the elastic and viscous components of rubber.
In the selected bounded domain idealized as an assemblage of the finite elements, the artificial damping ratio in the domain and the viscous dashpots
at the outer boundary serve to attenuate the vibration amplitudes of the outgoing wave and reflected wave.