Richards JH, Koptur S (1993) Floral variation and distyly
in Guettarda scabra (Rubiaceae).
Role of pollinators in the evolution of dioecy from distyly
and sequential pollinators of Psychotria nuda (Rubiaceae) in the Atlantic rain forest, Brazil.
Pollination biology and the impact of floral display, pollen donors, and distyly
on seed production in Arcytophyllum lavarum (Rubiaceae).
is a complex morphological and physiological polymorphism - the two floral morphs of a distylous species produce flowers that differ reciprocally in style and stamen lengths, and both self- and intramorph fertilizations are partially or completely prevented by self-incompatibility (Ganders 1979; Barrett 1990).
1993), suggest that distyly
has arisen from tristyly through the evolutionary loss of the M morph (Lewis and Rao 1971, Lewis 1975).
and pollen dimorphism in Damnacanthus (Rubiaceae).
Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B (1979) A model for the evolution of distyly
Others think that dioecism may have evolved from distyly
, hence leading
Pollen flow, population composition and the adaptive significance of distyly
in Linum tenuifolium.