Orbe further complicates the issue a few pages later by raising still more filial terminology: "Confronted by the Ebionites
, who maintained only the filial adoption of Jesus (mere man) at the Jordan as the paradigm and origin of human salvation .
So Bonaventure used the Ebionites
in order to critique the simoniacal clergy who understood their ecclesial rights as their possession instead of seeing them in terms of service.
On "Jewish Christianity," we are treated to solid and thoughtful proposals that go far beyond conventional considerations of Ebionites
, Nazoreans, and the like.
85-97), citing similarities in the baptismal practices of the Hemerobaptists, the Ebionites
, the Elchasaites, and the Mandaeans, notes a great deal of overlapping in Jewish and Christian understanding and practice, and concludes that this delayed the parting of the ways.
Essays by other scholars deal with groups (the Jerusalem Church, Paul's Christ-believing Jewish opponents, And the Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and with texts (Q, Matthew, the Johannine writings, James, Revelation, the Didache, and the Pseudo-Clementines).
In the definitive version of the Temptation, Flaubert has the Aged Ebionites
say that they have known "the Carpenter's Son
1] Due to pressure from both the early church and the Jewish community, the Jewish Christians were squeezed out, with various remnants such as the Ebionites
and Nazoraeans receive critical treatment (Skarsaune, Wolfram Kinzig), and Skarsaune closes the book with a masterful summary history.
They include Basilides the Gnostic, the school of Valentinus, Tatian the Assyrian, the egalitarian and ecstatic new prophecy of Montanism, Ebionites
, Nazarenes, and the Jewish Christianity of the Pseudo-Clementines.