2) Bavinck (2011) has noted that in the past some, such as the Ebionites
and the Gnostics, have argued that this was Christ's role.
Giesler (1820), who had a profound influence on Baur, credited Semler with being "the first to express the opinion that the Nazoraenes and Ebionites
made up the same party ('Einer Partey')" (p.
Nowadays it has become almost conventional in this connection to propose the view that one or other "Jewish-Christian" community, such as the ancient Nazarenes, Ebionites
, or Elkasites, were present in Arabia, and that they exercised a decisive influence on Muhammad and the Qur'an.
She considers it Jewish rather than Christian, or perhaps stemming from Jewish Christian milieux such as those of the Ebionites
(meaning the poor), considered Jesus to be a man, and not God.
Until the fourth century, sects of Christians (early on, the Ebionites
, and later, the School of Antioch, most importantly Diodorus of Tarsus and Nestorius) believed that Jesus was the biological son of Mary and Joseph and the adopted son of God.
Additional chapters explore specific events and groups that shaped this history, such as the Christian change of the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday, the enigmatic Christian sympathizers with Judaism known as Godfearers, and the mysterious Torah-observant Christian sects of Ebionites
Thus, making continuous references to proximate developments in Islam, Brown elaborates the adoptionist theology of the Ebionites
, their federal universalism, their critique of kingship as of the temple priesthood, and their notion of baptism as the primary emblem of purification rather than redemptive sacrifice--all with a view to understanding, with Schoeps, the world-historical "paradox" by which "Jewish Christianity indeed disappeared within the Christian church, but was preserved in Islam" (27).
The denials of the divinity of Christ by nineteenth-century critics like Strauss and Renan, which is Browning's context for this poem, were long preceded by the first- and second-century teachings of Cerinthus and the Ebionites
about the "double nature" of Jesus.
This "Gospel according to the Hebrews" (or simply "the Hebrew Gospel") is not to be confused with canonical Matthew (which, in Edwards' estimation, was the last of the three Synoptics to be written), but it is to be identified with the pseudepigraphal gospels of the Nazaraeans and the Ebionites
as Gentile Christianity gradually separated from Judaism, the early Church fathers had encountered and condemned various groups of Jewish talmidey Yeshu'a (disciples of Jesus such as Ebionites
and Nazarenes) and of alleged Gentile Judaisers.
Miller offers new translations of the four New Testament gospels; the Gospels of Thomas, Judas, and Mary; the Q Gospel; the Mystical Gospel of Mark; the Infancy Gospels of James and Thomas; the Egerton Gospel; the Gospel Oxrhynchus; the Gospels of the Hebrews, the Ebionites
, and the Nazoreans.