Astronomers call this point when the objects cannot accumulate matter any faster and give off any more X-rays the Eddington limit
To form their own model, they formed multiple hypothesis, all of which assumed the growth of black holes could surpass the so-called Eddington limit
, where the inward pull of the black hole's gravity is balanced by the outward pressure of radiation of hot gas from within.
This balance point between accretion in and radiation out is called the Eddington limit.
To reach that size in less than a billion years, the black hole must have accreted gas at its Eddington limit for roughly 60% of the time if it began as a direct-collapse seed.
This luminosity is called the Eddington limit
, which is proportional to the mass of the central object.
The results reveal that the star-forming efficiency of the galaxy is close to the theoretical maximum, called the Eddington limit
The observations also showed that radiation from the black hole was consistently near or above the Eddington limit
, the point of balance between the force of outward radiation from the hot gases inside and the gravitation force acting inward.
But ULXs are uncomfortably bright: to explain them, a stellar-mass black hole would need to reach or surpass its maximum gas-gobbling rate, called the Eddington limit
Black holes theoretically adhere to the Eddington limit
, which predicts that an accreting black hole can only spew so much energy in jets, winds, and radiation from its fluffy disk.
The star pours out so much radiation that it teeters perilously close to the Eddington limit
, the maximum luminosity a star can emit before the pressure exerted by its own radiation overcomes gravity and disrupts the star.