23) The novel's emigrationist
politics may have been "out of step" (Levine 1997, 189-90) with the concerns of the war effort.
By the mid-1850s, the two had become leaders of opposing ideological movements represented by two national conventions: an integrationist one led by Douglass held in Rochester, New York, in 1853, and an emigrationist
one led by Delany held in Cleveland, Ohio, the following year.
James (history, UC-Irvine) presents the first biographical portrait of educator, abolitionist, editor, government official, emigrationist
, and colonizationist Russwurm--one of the first African Americans to receive a university education and co-founder of America's first newspaper owned, operated, and edited by African Americans.
Echoing the thinking of his friend and fellow emigrationist
Martin Delany, Whitfield forwarded the notion that it was these very same enslaved black bodies that had created and ensured the existence of America as a "free" nation by physically and materially building up that nation, a fact which prompts Whitfield to construct a poetry, as Whitley puts it, that "functions on the .
Toward the end of the 1840s, Shadd and his daughter turned their attention to the emigrationist
Hence, his connections to the new republic in Haiti, his cooperation with black emigrationist
and ship captain Paul Cuffee, his opposition to the international slave trade, and his ties to Morris Brown, Denmark Vesey, and other Charleston blacks whose incubated insurrection against slavery in AME meetings demonstrate the wide reach of Allen's Atlantic World involvements.
We cannot separate Delany's life or work into distinct periods of insurrectionary thought and emigrationist
The seeds of Black Nationalism, sowed more a century before by leaders like Martin Delany, a militant black emigrationist
who promised a country back in Africa for all black Americans, were nurtured by separatist and fundamentalist leaders over generations.
Hahn was, in many ways, typical of the emigrationist
Holly, African American emigrationist
, noted that ".
Little's eloquence supports both the Canadian vision of our moral supremacy over the United States, but also the aspirations of emigrationist
African Americans to locate a new and comfortable homeland.
His stated objective, to observe and interpret emigrationist
cultural and spiritual meanings, in both private thought and public debate, is thus achieved.