By the mid-1850s, the two had become leaders of opposing ideological movements represented by two national conventions: an integrationist one led by Douglass held in Rochester, New York, in 1853, and an emigrationist
one led by Delany held in Cleveland, Ohio, the following year.
James (history, UC-Irvine) presents the first biographical portrait of educator, abolitionist, editor, government official, emigrationist
, and colonizationist Russwurm--one of the first African Americans to receive a university education and co-founder of America's first newspaper owned, operated, and edited by African Americans.
Hence, his connections to the new republic in Haiti, his cooperation with black emigrationist
and ship captain Paul Cuffee, his opposition to the international slave trade, and his ties to Morris Brown, Denmark Vesey, and other Charleston blacks whose incubated insurrection against slavery in AME meetings demonstrate the wide reach of Allen's Atlantic World involvements.
We cannot separate Delany's life or work into distinct periods of insurrectionary thought and emigrationist
Hahn was, in many ways, typical of the emigrationist
Little's eloquence supports both the Canadian vision of our moral supremacy over the United States, but also the aspirations of emigrationist
African Americans to locate a new and comfortable homeland.
Finally, these factors converge to explain the scarcity of white women colonizationists, while offering a new perspective on white abolitionist women and the contrasting experiences of b lack emigrationist
While many scholars know Delany for his radical emigrationist
stance during the 1850's, there is a less recognized diagnosis that has rarely been mentioned in his work--namely that emigration was necessary in light of the unchanging and permanent practice of anti-Black racism in America.
In January 1787, Hall and seventy-three other African-American men presented an emigrationist
plea to the State legislature, explaining that conditions in Boston
Another outspoken advocate of Black emancipation, the Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, who supported the emigrationist
movement and lived enough to watch the implementation of the Scramble, "feared that Europeans, who have once stolen Africans from Africa, would now steal Africa from the Africans" (100).
more conservative yet revolutionary emigrationists
But overall, the tampering meant that the emigrationists
did not have it all their own way.