Significantly, the object of this second quest shifts from revivifying Enkidu
, his lost other half (with both Enkidu
and Gilgamesh as beneficiaries), to the conquest of immortality by Gilgamesh, motivated by his own fear of dying ("Enkidu
, my friend whom I loved, is turned into clay," X, 68, and then "I have grown afraid of death," X, 62).
The words is-sa-ab-tu-ma ki-ma LI-i-im i-lu-du occur twice (the second time as is-sa-ab-tu-u-ma) in the depiction of the fight between Gilgamesh and Enkidu
in column vi of the Pennsylvania tablet.
In this provocative study, Susan Ackerman examines the stories of Gilgamesh and Enkidu
and David and Jonathan for what each ancient narrative tells of the heroes' relationships and how they can be understood using both ancient and modern concepts of friendship, eroticism, and sexuality.
has hair like a goddess (SB I 107), a pelt like a god (SB I 109), strength like a god (SB I 125, etc.
Harris notes that roles are reversed in this epic, as a prostitute acts like a mother to Enkidu
, and Ishtar acts like a male in her desire to enact revenge upon Gilgamesh and Enkidu
In a composition such as Gilgamesh, Enkidu
, and the Netherworld, he can choose to accede to Inana's pleas when she is in distress.
We see Enkidu
only once, after all, not twice; we never see the beast as the trapper really saw him.
Following the death of Enkidu
, Gilgames sinks into a deep depression, mourning both his friend and his own mortality.
Note that at the end of the Sumerian composition Gilgamesh, Enkidu
and the Netherworld (302-3), when Gilgamesh asks, "Did you see the man who was burnt to death?
Westenholz, Legends of the Kings of Akkade [Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 19971, 66, 326) that deserved more consideration were Culhaean Legend 159: atta ina sun sinnistika sipir lu teppus "You should do your task in your wife's embrace" (that is, you should beget an heir to the throne), and Sargon, the Conquering Hero 38: salamka lisziz ina mahar salmisu "He (the king) will set up your (the fallen soldier's) statue in the presence of his statue," reminding us of Shamash's promise, in the Gilgamesh Epic, to the dying Enkidu
that his friend would arrange a fine funeral for him, so to that extent his death was not in vain.
He claims that the description of Enkidu
eating grass and drinking water with the wild animals of the field is meant to convey the idea that a fundamental kinship exists between humans and animals.
The Buried Foundation of the Gilgamesh Epic is a close study of the Old Babylonian Gilgamesh poems, intending to show that a lost Akkadian narrative about Gilgamesh, focused on the expedition of Gilgamesh and Enkidu
against Huwawa, lies between the Old Babylonian Gilgamesh Epic, as known from the Penn and Yale tablets, and the Sumerian Gilgamesh and Huwawa poems.