Dark chocolate: A few squares of dark chocolate with more than 70 percent cocao are an excellent source of antioxidants--among them the chemical epicatechin
, which animal studies suggest may enhance memory and spur the growth of blood vessels in the brain.
Green tea polyphenols include epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin
-gallate (ECG), epicatechin
(EC), and epigallocatechin (EGC) (Wittayarat et al.
The new study, published in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, finds beta cells work better and remain stronger with an increased presence of epicatechin
monomers, compounds found naturally in cocoa.
In laboratory studies, epicatechin
has been shown to be a (https://www.
Phenolic compounds from medicinal herbs and dietary plants include phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, coumarins, lignans and quinones, as well as rutin and epicatechin
sinensis might be attributed due to action of its antioxidant compounds like catechins and their derivatives such as epicatechin
, epigallocatechin, epicatechin
gallate and epigallocatechin gallate (Jang et al.
The phenolic standards used were gallic acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin
, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, salicylic acid, resveratrol and quercetin all obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
The protonation reactions of catechin, epicatechin
and related compounds.
Catechin are monomers of flavonols with a variety of similar compounds comprising catechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin
gallate (EGC) and EGCG; among the compounds, EGCG is the major component of polyphenols in green tea [36,66,67] exerting numerous biological effects that are pertinent to human medicine including an antioxidant attributed with possessing high reductive powers capable of quenching singlet molecular oxygen and peroxyl radicals.
Phenolic compounds--catechin and epicatechin
(Cowan, 1999)--observed in tough lovegrass leaves (Favaretto et al.
The healthy element of chocolate is epicatechin
, a plant nutrient found in cocoa.
and 4'-O-methyl epicatechin
) in plasma as well as in the brain was detected previously after administration of the same dose of Epi as used in this study .