The metrical structure of each stanza is elaborate (differing in different poems), but metrically all the strophes and antistrophes in any given poem must be exactly identical with each other and different from the epodes
were for many years the least regarded of Horace's works.
A specialist in Latin poet Horace (65-8 BC), Johnson (classics, College of Charleston) describes how his iambic verse in Epodes
, though superficially a partisan attack on enemies of the recently triumphant Octavian, is also a criticism of civil war and those who foment it.
and Satires, and the historical Cleopatra, who came
In support of her reading, Matz emphasizes the allusion to the Roman witch Canidia in Stanza IV of the poem, who is described in Horace's Epodes
as burying a young man alive up to the neck in order to steal the power of his body for a love-charm.
In his early epodes
, he wrote, "Altera iam teritur bellis civilibus aetas, / suis et ipsa Roma ruit" (Now is another generation worn away by civil war, and Rome herself is ruined by her own men) (Epode
In 29 he published his Epodes
, in 23 the first three books of the Odes, and in 20 the first book of his Epistles.
In this essay, published during his lifetime only when the poem first appeared in 1855(CPW 1:229), Arnold announces his long attraction to the subject of Merope and then proceeds to create a "play of text with quotation and of quotations with one another," which is reminiscent of the strophes, antistrophes, and epodes
in the choric poetry he is applauding.
The political and literary sources of the Odes and Epodes
are explored, along with an unvarnished look at his attitude toward women.
Erasmus's Moriae encomium (Praise of folly) was published at Strasbourg in 1511, 1512, 1514, 1517, 1519, 1521, 1522, and 1523  -- hardly a year passed in which it did not appear -- and the ancient poets were a staple with the satirists represented by an edition of Juvenal "per Sebastianum Brant" in 1508, another edition of Juvenal Inter Latinos satyrographos consummatissimi Satyrae in 1513, 1518, and 1527, Persius's Satyrarum opus in 1517, and Martial's Epigrammata in 1515,  The complete works of Horace were published at Strasbourg in 1498, the satires and the Ars poetica in 1514, Horace's Sermonum seu Satyrarum Libri Duo in 1514, the Epodes
and Ars poetica in 1515, 1516 and 1520, and the odes in 1516, 1517, and 1520.
The 1550 Livre premier presents fourteen poems of varying metrical designs, including a tour de force of 1112 hexasyllabic verses (Ode I), a Pindaric piece in strophes, antistrophes, and epodes
(Ode X), and three works in Marotic "pauses" (Odes II, XI and XIII).
dicere carmen" (Horace, Carmen saeclare, in Odes and Epodes
, 6-8); "casturn ease decet pinto poetam / ipsum, versiculos nihil necessest" (Catullus, 16.